International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies (IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research. <em>IJMBS</em> commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr /> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies|| Biomedical Studies || </strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong> </strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology, Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences, Pharmacokinetics, Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr /> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr /> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr /> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr /> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;"></span></strong></span></span></p> <hr /> <p> </p> en-US (IJMBS) (IJMBS) Tue, 28 May 2024 12:30:54 +0000 OJS 60 Infection Prevention Strategies for Otorhinolaryngology and Head-and-Neck Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has significantly impacted global healthcare systems, necessitating stringent infection control measures to safeguard patients and healthcare workers. Otorhinolaryngology and head-and-neck surgery, due to their close proximity to the respiratory tract and frequent aerosol-generating procedures, face elevated risks of COVID-19 transmission. Understanding infection control measures in these specialties is paramount to optimize safety protocols and mitigate transmission risks.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Aim:</strong> The review aims to examine infection control measures in otorhinolaryngology and head-and-neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressing specific risks, effectiveness of safety measures, adaptations to evolving knowledge, implementation challenges, and future directions for research and policy.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Review Summary:</strong> A systematic literature search was conducted from December 2019 to present, focusing on infection control practices in these specialties during the pandemic. Studies addressing infection control measures, risks, and adaptations in otorhinolaryngology and head-and-neck surgery were included. Key findings were synthesized qualitatively, emphasizing trends, common themes, and discrepancies in data.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Future Implications: Insights from the review provide actionable guidance for optimizing infection control measures in otorhinolaryngology and head-and-neck surgery, enhancing safety for patients and healthcare providers during current and future pandemics. Areas for future research include ongoing surveillance, adaptation of protocols, and development of innovative safety strategies.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Clinical Policy and Development:</strong> Recommendations include comprehensive use of personal protective equipment, modifications to patient handling and surgical procedures, telemedicine integration, and adherence to strict infection control protocols. These measures aim to minimize COVID-19 transmission risks while maintaining essential healthcare services.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <span style="font-weight: 400;">COVID-19, Otorhinolaryngology, Head-And-Neck Surgery, Infection Control, Aerosol-Generating Procedures</span></p> H.I. Farrukh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies Tue, 28 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ENT Manifestations of Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Comprehensive Narrative Review <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder predominantly affecting exocrine glands, leading to symptoms such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. This review focuses on the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) manifestations of SjS, which significantly impact patient quality of life and pose diagnostic challenges.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Aim:</strong> The review aims to consolidate current knowledge on the ENT manifestations of SjS, exploring pathophysiological underpinnings, clinical presentations, and treatment strategies, while addressing the diagnostic challenges associated with the disease.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Review Summary:</strong> ENT manifestations in SjS include nasal dryness, recurrent sinusitis, otitis, and laryngeal dryness, which may precede other systemic manifestations, aiding in early diagnosis and management. This review highlights the importance of recognizing these symptoms for timely intervention, which can significantly improve disease prognosis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Future Implications:</strong> Understanding ENT manifestations can enhance multidisciplinary management approaches and foster development in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, potentially improving patient outcomes and quality of life.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Clinical Policy and Development:</strong> Enhanced awareness and training on the ENT aspects of SjS are recommended for healthcare professionals. Development of more sensitive diagnostic tools and personalized treatment plans could also address the variability in symptom presentation and response to treatment.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sjögren's Syndrome, ENT Manifestations, Xerostomia, Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, Multidisciplinary Management</p> H.I. Farrukh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies Tue, 28 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Hypogonadism in Male Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a widespread metabolic disorder linked with various complications, including hypogonadism—a condition marked by reduced testosterone levels and symptoms such as erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and increased fatigue. Hypogonadism remains underdiagnosed in diabetic populations, posing significant challenges to healthcare systems, especially in regions with high diabetic populations such as India.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study comprised 173 male T2DM patients aged 35 to 65. The study employed the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (ADAM) questionnaire to screen for hypogonadism, alongside physical examinations and biochemical tests to assess testosterone levels and other metabolic parameters.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results:</strong> The incidence of hypogonadism was found to be 27.2% among the study participants. Higher prevalence rates were related with older age, higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, and longer period of diabetes. Elevated fasting blood sugar and poor glycemic control (HbA1c ? 7%) were also significantly correlated with low testosterone levels.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The significant association between T2DM and hypogonadism underscores the need for routine screening for testosterone deficiency in diabetic care, particularly given the condition’s impact on quality of life and metabolic health.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Recommendations:</strong> Based on the findings, it is recommended that screening for hypogonadism be integrated into the regular management protocols for T2DM, particularly for patients presenting with metabolic syndrome features or those with poor glycemic control.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypogonadism, Testosterone, Metabolic Health, Indian Population</span></p> Amitav Mohanty Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies Wed, 29 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasonography and Pregnancy Outcome in Threatened Abortion: A Prospective Observational Study <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> Women who experience vaginal bleeding in the early stages of their pregnancy should be extremely worried about the phenomenon of "threatened abortion". Predicting the course of a pregnancy and choosing the best management techniques are critical to providing the best possible care for patients. The purpose of this investigation's prospective observational design was to learn more about the predictive power of ultrasound and how it may affect the medical management of upcoming abortions.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Method:</strong> For the study, 200 first trimester pregnant women who showed indicators of an imminent abortion were gathered between X and Y. We looked at the fetus's heart, the size of the cervical canal, and a few other parts of the gestational sac using ultrasonography. Furthermore, records pertaining to the existence of extra data, like subchorionic hematoma, were found. Numerous exams were conducted to monitor the pregnancy's development.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results:</strong> Of the research's participants, 35% miscarried for unidentified reasons, and 65% were able to bring their pregnancies to term. The pregnancy's outcome could be accurately predicted based on the ultrasonography results. More specifically, there was a significant correlation between the development of a visible gestational sac and the presence of fetal heart activity and a higher chance of a successful pregnancy outcome. This was a strong relationship. On the other hand, women who had a subchorionic hematoma or a shorter cervical length were found to have a significantly higher risk of miscarriage. These findings show the value of ultrasonography as a technique for forecasting the course of pregnancies that are at risk of ending because of difficulties connected to the threat of abortion.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Investigation's prospective observational design shows how ultrasound can be used to evaluate the advancement of pregnancy to determine cases where an abortion is likely to occur soon. Clinical decision-making based on ultrasound findings can improve patient management plans, patient counseling, and care for expectant patients. If prompt intervention using ultrasonographic signs improves the results of pregnancy at high risk, more research is needed to make that determination.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ultrasonography, Threatened Abortion, Subchorionic Hematoma, and Ultrasound Markers</p> Sadhna Kumari, Ashutosh Kumar, Anjana Sinha, Gunjan Gunjan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies Sat, 01 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Unilateral Buccal Necrotizing Fasciitis Superimposed with Submandibular Abscess At Colli Dextra in a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patient : A Case Report <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a relatively rare infectious disease of soft tissues that is characterized by necrosis of subcutaneous tissue and fascia and can even extend to involve the skin and muscles, with the main spread through odontogenic infections. One of the main comorbidities of necrotizing fasciitis is diabetes mellitus. Proper case management is needed because NF can result in severe morbidity and mortality if not treated at an early stage.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Study Objective:</strong> This case report aims to report the management of patients with buccal necrotizing fasciitis complicated by submandibular abscesses with comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A 60-year-old woman came to RSHS complaining of swelling on her right cheek 20 days before hospital admission, which further extended to the jaw and neck area. Swelling on the patient's face did not improve after antibiotic treatment, and continued to enlarge to a size of 10x8x7 cm and 8x6x5 cm. The patient has a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and controlled hypertension. The patient is diagnosed as necrotizing fasciitis and submandibular abscess. Patients are given antibiotic treatment and performed pus-tapping, necrotomy debridement, and tooth extraction.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion :</strong> Necrotizing fasciitis involving the facial (especially buccal) area is rare, with the main cause being odontogenic, peritonsillar, or sinugenic. The main management includes debridement, reconstructive measures, and administration of antibiotics. Extensive tissue involvement, and poly-comorbid conditions can worsen the prognosis of necrotizing fasciitis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords :</strong> Abscess, Buccal, Colli dextra, Necrotizing fasciitis, Submandibular</p> Marissa Adelina, Endang Sjamsudin, Melita Sylvyana Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies Sun, 02 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000