International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;">editor@ijmbs.info</span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US editor@ijmbs.info (IJMBS) editorijmbs.info@gmail.com (IJMBS) Thu, 02 Sep 2021 13:29:20 -0400 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EVALUATION FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF HELICAL FIXATION PFN A2 IN PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURE IN ELDERLY https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2184 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Intertrochantric fractures are the most frequently operated fractures and has the highest mortality and morbidity rates. Evaluation functional outcome of helical fixation pfn a2 in proximal femur fracture in elderly</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Hospital based prospective randomized comparative study conducted during year Oct 2017 – Dec2019 at Department of Orthopedics, GMC Hospital and Associated Groups of Hospitals, Kota</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The Distribution of the cases according to HHS (24 week). As per HHS, we have found that 78.57% cases (22) under excellent category and 17.85% (5) good and 3.57% (1) fair of HHS.2 patients. 2 patients were lost in their followup. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We can conclude that the PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAIL ANTIROTATION2 is after proper training and technique a safe and easy implant option for treatment of complex peritertrochanteric fractures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>HHS, Femur, fracture</p> Manoj Meena, Satyndra Meena, Ram Khiladi Meena, R.P. Meena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2184 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 MRI EVALUATION OF POST TRAUMATIC INTERNAL DERANGEMENT OF KNEE https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2144 <p>Internal derangement of knee joint constitutes a major source of morbidity in patients attending orthopaedic outpatients department of our hospital. It includes a group of disorders due to disruption of normal functioning of ligaments and menisci of knee joint leading to persistent or intermittent signs and symptoms such as pain, instability, or abnormal mobility of the knee. MRI would be a non-invasive non-operator dependent effective modality for early detection of these pathologies and has very high negative predictive value. MRI of knee would save us many unnecessary diagnostic arthroscopy, which is an invasive procedure with associated risks. With pivotal role played by MRI. Arthroscopy could be used mainly for therapeutic purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI in early and precise diagnosis of internal derangement of knee. Identification of indirect signs of tear of ligaments and menisci would increase the sensitivity of detection</p> Amit Kumar Routh, Neelagiri Dheeraj, Gaurav Balpande Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2144 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF CHILDREN ADMITTED WITH STATUS EPILEPTICS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2207 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Objective of this study was to study epidemiology and clinical profile of Status epilepticus</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based cross sectional study conducted on 50 children All children aged between 1 month to 12 years who at presentation or during the PICU stay had convulsive status epilepticus - defined as continuous seizure activity or recurrent seizure activity without regaining consciousness lasting for &gt;5 min.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 50 children 56.00 % were in the age group were less than 5 years ,24 % were between 6-10 years ,20.00 % were above 10 yrs. The mean age group was 6.21±1.26 years. Incidence was higher in males (64%) when compared to females (36%). Generalized tonic clonic seizure were observed in 46 (92.00%) and partial seizure was noted in 4 (8%) of the children. About 36 (72%) of the children developed SE for the first time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Status epilepticus is one of the common neurological emergency which requires admission to PICU. In our study epilepsy is one of the most common causes of status epilepticus. Early and appropriate treatment with anticonvulsants and use of mechanical ventilation may improve the outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Status epilepticus, mortality, clinical profile</p> Sushil Kuamr Bakolia, Gajendra Kumar Verma, Dinesh Kumar Barolia Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2207 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CESARIAN SECTION https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2182 <p>This study was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TXA in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following LSCS and record any adverse effects following its administration<strong>. </strong>A total of 60 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 42 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 30 did not receive tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P &lt; 0.001) and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P &lt; 0.001). A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords- </strong>LSCS, Blood loss, Tranexamic acid</p> Surabhi Saharan, Pinki Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2182 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 THE EFFECT OF NEBULIZED SALBUTAMOL ON SERUM POTASSIUM AND BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL OF ASTHMATIC PATIENTS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2205 <p><strong>Background:</strong> To evaluate the effect of nebulized salbutamol used in the management of patients with asthma who have normal serum potassium and blood glucose levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based prospective study conducted on 30 children mild exacerbation of asthma who needed two doses of 2.5 mg nebulized salbutamol, 10 minutes apart for the relief of their symptoms will be include.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The potassium mean was significantly decreased after 1 hour of nebulizer administration. The random blood sugar mean was significantly increased after 1 hour of nebulizer administration (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The nebulizer applying salbutamol has a profound effect in lowering the Potassium level and increasing blood glucose level after 60 minutes of administration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> effect, nebulized, salbutamol, blood sugar, serum potassium</p> Sushil Kuamr Bakolia, Gajendra Kumar Verma, Dinesh Kumar Barolia Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2205 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAPAROSCOPIC AND OPEN SURGICAL METHOD IN MANAGEMENT OF PEPTIC ULCER PERFORATION https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2178 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Comparative study of laparoscopic and open surgical method in management of peptic ulcer perforation</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted in patients presented with perforation peritonitis to the emergency department in G.G.S medical college and hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Faridkot, Punjab in which comparison of the clinical outcome between laparoscopic and open surgical methods for treatment of Gastro duodenal perforation was study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean operative time of laparoscopic repair group was higher (158.2±0.64 min) in comparison to open repair group (70.8±0.42 min). In the present study post-operative pain score was assessed in each and every patient using Visual analogue scale. On post-operative day 1, mean VAS for OR Group was significantly higher in comparison to LR Group. Later on postoperative day 3, Majority of patients of in LR group had a highest score of 1-4 while in OR group was score 5-7.Nexton postoperative day 5, again mean VAS for LR patients was less in comparison to OR Group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As this is the first kind of study in our geographical area in which role of alcohol proved to be an important risk factor. Laparoscopic approach for repair of perforated peptic ulcer may offer significant advantage over open repair approach with lesser post-operative pain, lsser postoperative complications like wound infections, comparable reperforation rates and</p> <p>lesser duration of hospital stay.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Laparoscopic, Open, Repair</p> Gurpreet Singh, Deepak Meena, Vinod Bhavi, Jas Karan Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2178 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF INTERLOCKING INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING IN SEGMENTAL FRACTURES OF TIBIA IN TERMS OF JOHNER AND WRUH'S CRITERIA https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2203 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Segmental tibia fractures is defined as a unique fracture type characterized by least two different fracture lines with a completely isolated intercalary osseous fragment. Segmental fractures of tibia are uncommon and are usually caused by a high-energy trauma. They have a high complication rate</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted on 40 patients who will receive segmental fractures of tibia treated with intramedullary nail in Department of Orthopaedics at Dr. S. N. Medical College and Associated group of Hospital, Jodhpur. The study was conducted from July 2019 to November 2020</p> <p>Results: In our study Most common complication in shortening (8 patients 20%), followed by knee pain and ankle pain (7 patients of each 17.50%)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fractures of the tibia shaft, managed with interlocking intramedullary nailing involves minimal surgical trauma and negligible blood loss while provides the advantages of early ambulation, lower rate of infection, delayed union, non-union and mal-union.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tibia fracture, Intramedullary nail, Interlocking nail</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Sumit Machra, Mahendra Kumar Aseri, Avinash Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2203 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 FREQUENCY OF BACTEREMIA IN BURN PATIENTS IN RELATION TO THROMBOCYTOPENIA https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2176 <p>Burn patients are obviously at high risk for infections due to the immune compromising effects of burn injury. E.coli is an important life-threatening pathogen in burn units [1]. The aim of this study was to determine bacteremia&nbsp; in the surgical and plastic surgery units of Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot.25 burn patients were chosen at random study staph aureus (6) was the dominant organism followed by&nbsp; E. Coli (4) in blood culture,. Eight (32%) of the total patients died and 68% survived.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Burn, Bacteremia, Thrombocytopenia</p> Vinod Bhavi, Jas Karan Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Deepak Meena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2176 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 COMPARISON STUDY OF IVABRADINE WITH METOPROLOL IN MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2201 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Acute coronary syndrome remains as one of the most important causes for morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Therefore, evidence-based management strategy is required to offset the loss of health during an acute coronary syndrome. An effective approach includes both medical and surgical methods. This study was conducted to evaluate the medical method of management.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To study blood pressure and heart rate variability after administration of Ivabradine or metoprolol in cases with acute coronary syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The study was a Prospective single center observational study conducted in patients attending Cardiology Intensive Care Unit in Nayyar Heart and Superspecialty Hospital, a tertiary care centre located in an urban area. All patients with Acute coronary syndrome admitted to the emergency or cardiac care unit were analysed with ECG as a preliminary diagnostic test and confirmed with troponin markers. They were either given Ivabradine or Metoprolol. Baseline evaluation and follow up was done and necessary data was collected and analysed. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>100 patients were included in the study out of which 50 were given Metoprolol (Group A) and 50 were given Ivabradine (Group B). Themean age of studied cases was found to be 66.54 years in group A and 68.69 years in group B. It was observed that there was a fall in heart rate by 26.8 beats per minute with beta blocker and 24.4 beats per minute with Ivabradine. In case of blood pressure measurement, in patients with beta blocker administration, there was a fall of 25 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 17 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure However, with Ivabradine there was only a fall of 8mm Hg in systolic Blood pressure and 6 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although Metoprolol is the drug of choice to decrease heart rate and blood pressure in acute coronary syndrome, Ivabradine is being increasingly used in cases where beta blockers are contraindicated as it has similar efficacy in lowering heart rate without compromising contractility of cardiac muscle, thereby maintaining LVEF and blood pressure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Acute coronary syndrome, Beta Blockers, Metoprolol, Ivabradine.</p> Rishman Tandi, Tanvi Kumar, Amritpal Singh Kahlon, Aaftab Sethi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2201 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 TO STUDY THE INCIDENCE OF GALL STONE PANCREATITIS AND ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS OUR INSTITUTION https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2174 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The most important aetiological factors for acute pancreatitis are either biliary tract stone disease or alcohol, which account for approximately 75-80% of all cases of acute pancreatitis</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in the department of surgery, RNT Medical College and Maharana Bhupal Govt. Hospital, Udaipur. A total of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis were studied</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In our study of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis, 14(40%) patient had alcoholic pancreatitis, and 13(37.2%) patient had gall stone pancreatitis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Prevalence of Alcohol abuse and gall stones were almost equal frequency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Risk factor, Pancreatitis, Gall sone</p> Ravindra Singh, Devendra Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2174 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 INTRACTABLE VOMITING AS THE INITIAL PRESENTATION OF NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA SPECTRUM DISORDER: A CASE REPORT https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2193 <p>We present our experience with an anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patient diagnosed with NMOSD who complained of intractable nausea and vomiting, not restricted to optic neuritis or acute myelitis during the first attack. Her symptoms partially resolved after appropriate therapy with therapeutics plasma exchange, intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone and follow up to azathioprine 50 mg. Through this case, we hope to draw attention to an unusual neurological presentation of NMOSD which should be included in the differential diagnosis of intractable nausea and vomiting.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Intractable nausea, vomiting, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, aquaporin 4, gastroenterology, methyl-prednisolone</p> Manjit, Ruchika Majoka, Monika Dhankher, Ritika Gupta, Madhu, Jasminder Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2193 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2172 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of hospitalization for gastrointestinal disorders in the United States, with more than 280,000 hospitalizations each year.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was conducted in the department of surgery, RNT Medical College and Maharana Bhupal Govt. Hospital, Udaipur. A total of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis were studied</p> <p><strong>Results: O</strong>ut of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis, 26(74.28%) patient were given Octreotide therapy. 9(25.7%) patient out of 35 were not given Octreotide therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thus it may be concluded that most of these cases can be managed conservatively and the use of Octreotide therapy helps in the favourable outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Conservative, pancreatitis, Managed</p> Ravindra Singh, Deepak Meena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2172 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 SIGNIFICANCE OF SACRAL INDEX IN SEX DETERMINATION https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2191 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The objective of present study is to determine the significance of sacral index in sex determination</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Descriptive Observational Cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Dr. S. N. Medical College,Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India)</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean sacral index of sacrum in males is (99.68± 7.15) and in females (109.86±8.72). Calculated range for males is (78.23-121.13)and Demarking point is &lt;83.70. Calculated range for females is (83.70-136.02) and Demarking point is &gt;121.13. ‘P’- Value is 0.000 which isconsidered to be statistically highly significant. Bone identified by DP is (27.77%) males and (33.92%) females.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Since sacrum is a component of pelvic girdle with Anatomical difference between the two sexes, it itself becomes important for identification of sex in human skeleton system. The study will be useful for the anatomist, anthropologist &amp; experts in the forensic medicine foraccurate sexing of sacra &amp; various other clinical tenacities. The sacral index is most reliable in sexing of sacra. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sacrum, Sex, Index</p> Guru Sharan Koodi, Mahaveer Choyal, Shailendra Khichi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2191 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 MUSTARD OIL – GARLIC COMBO MASSAGE- AN EFFECTIVE KNEE PAIN HOME REMEDY https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2170 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Knee pain is one of the most prevalent disorders affecting the quality of life of elderly age group and geriatric population. This can occur due to numerous reasons including obesity, constant weight bearing rheumatic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis as well as osteoarthritis that may lead to swelling, redness, warmth, weakness, tenderness, and stiffness of the joint. A number of pain reliever formulations are available in the market that include NSAIDs based creams, intra synovial injections and steroid based formulations however none of them proves to be completely effective in improving the quality of life of geriatric population. In addition to it, there are a number of reported side effects/adverse events related to these formulations.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a home remedy prepared from Mustard oil and garlic as mentioned in ancient texts of Ayurveda in the knee pain subjects for improving quality of life. A quasi-experimental study (two group pretest and posttest design) was conducted in 70 subjects in two groups of 35 each with knee joint pain meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pain was assessed using numeric pain scale. Data analysis was done using inferential and descriptive statistics. Majority of the samples in both group I and group II had moderate and severe level of pain.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After intervention, the pain level had reduced to mild level in experimental group as compared to conventional group. The mean pretest values of pain score in experimental group had significant difference during posttest measurement of mean pain score. The difference was found to be significant in experimental group with warm mustard oil massage, but in conventional group difference was not significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mustard oil-garlic combo massage proved to be a good home remedy in knee pain</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> &nbsp;effectiveness, mustard oil with garlic massage, knee pain</p> Manpreet Sharma, Mandeep Kaur, Hardeep Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2170 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 A STUDY ON PLATELET COUNT AND PLATELET INDICES IN NEONATAL SEPSIS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTER https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2187 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present study is undertaken to evaluate Platelet count and platelet indices in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This prospective observational study was conducted on 100 consecutive neonates (both inborn and out born), with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis along with either positive culture (confirmed neonatal sepsis ) or other laboratory findings suggestive of bacterial and fungal infection in absence of positive cultures (probable sepsis), were included after written informed consent from parents.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>71 (71.00%) out of 100 cases had increased values of Platelet Distribution Width. In Proven sepsis group 31(86.11%) cases had increased values of PDW, in Probable sepsis 31(63.27%) and in No sepsis group 9(60.00%<strong>) </strong>cases were having increased values of PDW. This difference was statistically not significant (P value is 0.08).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Platelet count and platelet indices, which are easily available hematological parameters in remote &amp; resource poor areas of our country, should be taken into consideration for suspected cases of neonatal sepsis so that prompt treatment can be given, and morbidity and mortality can be reduced.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sepsis, TPC, MPV, PDW.</p> Neha Sharma, G S Senger, Seema Meena, Priyanka Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2187 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 THE MANAGEMENT OF SNAKE BITE AND THEIR OUTCOME WITH DIFFERENT VARIABLES https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2163 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Snake Bite is a life-threatening medical emergency &amp; major public health issue throughout the world and especially in tropical countries like India. Snake bite which is a substantial cause of death in rural areas of developing countries, is a neglected public health problem.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study include the patient of snake bite who is admitted in department of medicine of M.D.M. Hospital attached to Dr S. N. Medical College Jodhpur during the period of one year January 01 2018 to December 31, 2018. Patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and meeting inclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Maximum number of the cases did not receive any first aid and ASV&amp; Pain killer was the most common component of the first aid. Two third of the cases were bitten by Viper snakes while one third by Cobra and Krait collectively. ASV dose was given as per the case response and in ASV dose of 30-50 VIAL was injected in majority of the victims (38.56). 30-50 VIAL was injected in majority of the victims. At time of hospital admission WBCT is normal in 52 patients (33.09%) while 101 patients had WBCT more than 20 min.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Snakebite, an important occupational hazard, though preventable in principle remains to be one of the common medical emergencies. Primary prevention by imparting information regarding quick transport, correct first aid measures and training of primary level health workers can drastically bring down the mortality of this neglected tropical disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Snake bite, ASV, Viper.</p> Ramesh Kumar Jakhar, Arvind Jain Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2163 Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 ANXIETY ASSOCIATED WITH ORAL HEALTH AMONG ADOLESCENTS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2185 <p><strong>Background</strong>: A Psychological discomfort can influence how people behave when it comes to their health. We looked at how gender, school grade, parents' education, family structure, smoking, and perceived overall health influenced psychological distress, social phobia (SP), and anxiety linked with dental brushing among Finnish teenagers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This research is part of the national School Health Promotion Study in Finland (SHP). A representative sample of Finnish 15-year-olds (N=45,877) was used in the study. SP and anxiety were assessed using the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The respondents' oral health behaviors (tooth brushing, smoking), background characteristics (age, gender, family structure, and parents' education), and perceived general health were all asked about in a questionnaire. In the study, Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analyses were used.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adolescents, Oral health behaviour, Psychological distress, Tooth brushing.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2185 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME BETWEEN BIOABSORBABLE INTERFERENCE SCREW AND ENDOBUTTON FIXATION ON FEMUR IN ARTHROSCOPIC ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2148 <p><strong>Background: </strong>This prospective clinical study was performed to compare the Functional outcomes between Bioabsorbable Interference Screw And Endobutton Fixation On Femur In Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction <strong>.<br />Methods: </strong>from April 2018 to June 2019, 126 patients (16 females and 110 males) aged 18 to 50 years were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups including Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction with Bioabsorbable interference screw fixation called group A (N=63) and other group B that underwent ACL reconstruction with Endobutton fixation (N=63). Functional outcomes were compared for TL (Tegner Lysholm)</p> <p>Score preoperatively, at 3 months and 6 months. All data were collected and analyzed with the help of suitable statistical parameters.<br /><strong>Results: </strong>The endobutton fixation yielded better outcome in terms of instant stability of the graft and functional outcome at the end of 6 month. We are currently awaiting long term results to verify whether or not these early results persist.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Bioabsorbable Interference Screw, Endobutton Fixation, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, TL Score.</p> Ramniwas Swarnkar, Gyanendra Singh Chauhan, Shyoji Lal Sharma, Ravindra Lamoria Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2148 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 FACTORS RESTRICT TREATMENT EFFICIENCY IN ASTHMA PATIENTS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2183 <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> A number of modifiable factors that contribute to poor asthma control have been identified. We wanted to know how many patients had insufficient therapy, adherence, or major inhaler technique errors, and how they affected asthma control.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We conducted a cross-sectional multicenter observational research with asthma patients who were referred for the first time from primary to specialized treatment. Adequate prescription according to guidelines, treatment adherence, and illness control were among the data collected. 35.9% of the 1682 patients (age 45-17 years, 64.6 percent men) had insufficient prescriptions, 76.8% had low adherence, and 17 percent had critical inhaler technique errors, with Easyhaler users making significantly fewer critical errors than other dry powder inhaler users (10.3 versus 18.4%; p 0.05). Inadequate prescription (OR: 3.65), non-adherence to therapy (OR: 1.8), and inhaler abuse were all linked to poor asthma control (OR: 3.03). A greater number of risk variables were linked to a greater likelihood of having poorly managed asthma.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Asthma, interdental cleaning, elderly, prevention, periodontal disease, caries.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2183 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 THE FREQUENCY OF HYPONATREMIA AND HYPOKALEMIA IN MALNOURISHED CHILDREN WITH ACUTE DIARRHEA https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2206 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malnutrition is a major global health problem, with the major burden being in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Afric. The study was undertaken to determine the frequency of hyponatremia an hypokalemia in malnourished children with acute diarrhea.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based prospective study was conducted on 100 children between the age group of 6months to 5years presenting with acute diarrhea was include in the study<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Hyponatremia was observed in total 15 (15.00%) cases of diarrhea. Regarding the grade of malnutrition, hyponatremia was observed in only 4.44% in grade 1, 8.69% in grade, 41.67% in grade 3 and 60.00% in grade 4 malnutrition respectively.&nbsp; Hypokalemia was noticed in 10.00% cases (10 out of 100) with acute diarrhea. The frequency of hypokalemia was 4.44% in grade 1, 8.69% in grade 2, 25.00% in grade 3 and 40.00% in grade 4 malnutrition respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Electrolyte disturbances are often subclinical in malnourished children, but become obvious during the episode of acute diarrhoeal disease. Hence serum electrolytes of every malnourished child with acute diarrhoea should be estimated in order to do immediate correction and avoid serious life-threatening outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> IAP, Malnutrition, Diarrhoea</p> Sushil Kumar Bakolia, Gajendra Kumar Verma, Dinesh Kumar Barolia Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2206 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 THE COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN OPEN TECHNIQUES VERSUS LIMBERG FLAP TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT OF SACROCOCCYGEAL PILONIDAL SINUS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2180 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Comparative study of laparoscopic and open surgical method in management of peptic ulcer perforation</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted in patients presented with perforation peritonitis to the emergency department in G.G.S medical college and hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Faridkot, Punjab in which comparison of the clinical outcome between laparoscopic and open surgical methods for treatment of Gastro duodenal perforation was study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean operative time of laparoscopic repair group was higher (158.2±0.64 min) in comparison to open repair group (70.8±0.42 min). In the present study post-operative pain score was assessed in each and every patient using Visual analogue scale. On post-operative day 1, mean VAS for OR Group was significantly higher in comparison to LR Group. Later on postoperative day 3, Majority of patients of in LR group had a highest score of 1-4 while in OR group was score 5-7.Nexton postoperative day 5, again mean VAS for LR patients was less in comparison to OR Group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As this is the first kind of study in our geographical area in which role of alcohol proved to be an important risk factor. Laparoscopic approach for repair of perforated peptic ulcer may offer significant advantage over open repair approach with lesser post-operative pain, lsser postoperative complications like wound infections, comparable reperforation rates and</p> <p>lesser duration of hospital stay.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Laparoscopic, Open, Repair</p> Deepak Meena, Vinod Bhavi, Jas Karan Singh, Gurpreet Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2180 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 CHALLENGES AND COPING STRATEGIES FOR CORONA WARRIORS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2204 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is indubitably one of the deadliest events recorded in the 21st century. By the beginning of the year, 2020 the COVID-19 virus has taken the world by surprise and posed a huge challenge to one and all. This pandemic has revealed the existing state of our health care system along with the condition of health care workers (HCWs) with respect to preparedness for such crisis time. During this pandemic, healthcare workers are playing a crucial role in the early detection of cases, contact tracing, and treatment of patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Material</strong>: Literature search was done regarding challenges faced by healthcare institutions and health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic from multiple databases. The studies published between June 2020 to January 2021 were considered. The articles were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>COVID-19 pandemic as uncovered our preparations to handle pandemic. Health care workers have gone through a difficult time including experiencing stigma, physical and psychological burden. The healthcare institutions had faced shortages of personal protective equipment (PPEs), trained human resource and basic facilities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This review underlines the current discussion about the challenges faced by HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic and their coping strategies. An effective, coordinated, and sincere effort towards helping HCWs by developing congenial environment, provision of regular training, psychological support is pivotal to motivate them to work during such crisis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19; Health Care Workers; Stigma; Pandemic; PPEs</p> Mahendra Kumar, Shweta Talati, Pankaj Arora, Mukhtiar Gill Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2204 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIEDRADICAL MASTECTOMY AND BREAST CONSERVATION SURGERY IN EARLY BREAST CANCER https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2177 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The improvement in the treatment of breast cancer is due to early diagnosis, better understanding of the natural history of this disease and therapeutic improvements over the years. There is a gradual shift away from radical surgery advocated by Halsted to the breast conservative surgery during the last few decades all over the world mainly influenced by the results of several large trials of lesser surgical procedures.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based descriptive study was conducted on patients with Early Breast Cancer presenting to the Department of General Surgery in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College &amp; Hospital, Faridkot.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean blood loss of the subjects of the BCS group was observed to be 44.07±15.76 ml as compared to 94.36 ± 31.50 ml in the subjects of the MRM. Mean operative time of the subjects of the BCS group was observed to be 46.03±8.68 minutes as compared to the mean operative time of 64.03±16.56 minutes in the subjects of the MRM group. Mean VAS score on day-1 in BCS group and in MRM group was 5.3±1.98 and 6.73±1.70 respecively. Mean VAS score on day-3 in BCS group and in MRM group was 4.46±1.50 and 5.1±1.56 respectively. Mean VAS score on day-5 in BCS group and in MRM group was 2.96±0.76 and 2.96±1.06 respectively. Seroma Formation was observed in 3.33 % cases in BCS group and 16.67 % in MRM group. Flap necrosis was observed in 0 % in BCS group whereas 10.00 % of the patients had flap necrosis in MRM group. Positive margins were absent in both BCS group and MRM group. Wound infection was observed in 6.67% of the patients in the BCS group and 20.00% in the MRM group. Quality of life score for BCS and MRM was 108.53±14.62 and 95.26±14.70 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Breast conservation surgery should be the preferred treatment for Stage-I and Stage-II Breast cancer disease due to its lesser post-operative pain, shorter duration of surgery, lesser blood loss and short hospital stay thus helping in early returning to normal activity. Breast conservation surgery has better outcomes compared with Modified radical mastectomy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> BCS, MRM, Breast surgery</p> Jas Karan Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Deepak Meena, Vinod Bhavi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2177 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 EFFECT OF ONE MONTH DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING ON PEAKEXPIRATORY FLOW RATE AND BREATH HOLDING TIME https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2202 <p>Practice of yoga based relaxation techniques has been associated with various physiological changes in our body. The long term practice of these techniques has been reported to improve the pulmonary functions. However, the study on effects of short term diaphragmatic breathing on lung functions is yet lacking. Therefore, the present analytical study was conducted to find the changes in pulmonary functions after practising diaphragmatic breathing for one month among (n=40; 20 males and 20 females) 1<sup>st</sup> year MBBS students aged between 18-20 years. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and breathe holding time (BHT) was recorded in these subjects before and after one month of practising diaphragmatic breathing. There was a significant increase in both PEFR and BHT after 1month of diaphragmatic breathing manoeuvre depicting the beneficial of diaphragmatic breathing on pulmonary functions.</p> <p>Key words: Yoga; Pulmonary functions; Peak Expiratory Flow Rate; Breath Holding Time</p> Praveen Bhardwaj, Reena Bhardwaj, Prerna Singh, Devendra Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2202 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 CLINIC OPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCY IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2175 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world. It is the second foremost cause of cancer mortality in the United States.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The present study was carried out on 25 patients, being admitted to the various surgical wards ofM.B. Govt. Hospital, attached to the R.N.T. Medical College Hospital, Udaipur between the period July 2017 to November 2019</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The presenting symptoms in the present study were change in bowel habit (92%), bleeding per rectum (32%), and loss of weight in 60% of cases. A lump abdomen was noticed in 48% of cases, pain abdomen in 36% of cases. 16% presented with acute bowel obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The common symptoms of constipation or constipation with diarrhoea are neglected and treated with simple laxative without elaborate investigation. Bleeding from malignant growth in the rectum is thought to be from piles and mis-treated accordingly, without doing a simple digital examination. It is emphasized that a thorough history taking, proper physical examination is must. To arrive in a correct diagnosis and plan a definite treatment. Also health education to the public in the forms of lectures, posters and audio-visual presentations will help the patient to seek medical advise at an earliest time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Colorectal, Carcinoma, Clinical</p> Ravindra Singh, Atul Ameta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2175 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 CURRENT ASPECTS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2195 <p>Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health burden worldwide due to its transience and fatality rate. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma varies around the globe due to demographic and genetic differences. Oral cancer is the second most prevalent oral pathology in Pakistan which ultimately leads to death. Recent study divulged that the Pakistan has the increasing trend towards the OSCC, and the incidence rate of Pakistan is like Iran and India. Human papilloma virus and betel nut are the root causes for the development of oral cancer. Oral squamous cell carcinoma occur in the oral cavity. OSSC may present as a well-established to ambiguous lesion like exophytic lesion, endophytic lesion, or sometimes in erythroleucoplastic pattern. In current situation, the use of advance technologies for early detection and prevention can overcome this burden from the population. Due to lack of local literature we rally to review the published literature on Pakistan. The collection of published studies was made by using PubMed, NCBI and Google Scholar as database search engine. We searched and include only Pakistan based population studies during the year between 2016 to 2020. We conclude that OSCC is the highly prevalent oral pathology in Pakistan with male preponderance. Most common risk factor being betel nut followed by tobacco and Grade-II carcinoma is highly prevalent oral cancer in our population.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, risk factors, Pakistani population.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kiran Arif, Fouzia Shaikh, Rizma Khan, Saba Arif , Hira Arif Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2195 Sat, 11 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 TO STUDY THE RISK FACTORS ETIOLOGY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2173 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The most important aetiological factors for acute pancreatitis are either biliary tract stone disease or alcohol, which account for approximately 75-80% of all cases of acute pancreatitis</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was conducted in the department of surgery, RNT Medical College and Maharana Bhupal Govt. Hospital, Udaipur. A total of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis were studied</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In our study of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis, 14(40%) patient had alcoholic pancreatitis, while 13(37.2%) patient had gall stone pancreatitis. In 8(22.8%) patient cause was undetected.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Alcohol abuse and gall stones were main etiological factors with almost equal frequency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Risk factor, Pancreatitis, Gall sone</p> Devendra Singh, Ravindra Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2173 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 POSTMENOPAUSAL BLEEDING: A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2192 <p><strong>Background:</strong> To evaluated the prevalence of post-menopausal bleeding.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a descriptive type of observational study conducted among women with Postmenopausal Bleeding who attended the Gynaecology OPD SMS Medical College Jaipur. 60 Postmenopausal patients were included in this study. After fulfilling the inclusion crtieria a detailed history and clinical examination was done as per Proforma, followed by investigations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> On the basis of histopathological examination most of the patients was having atrophic endometrium followed by simple hyperplasia. Majority of patients had atropic endometrium i.e. 38.3% cases, followed by endometrial hyperplasia was detected in 14 patients i.e 23.3% cases out of which 11 had simple hyperplasia while 3 patients had&nbsp; atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial cancer was detected in 8 patients i.e. 13.3% cases. Out of 8 patients one case was confirmed as adenocarcinoma on histopathology after polypectomy through hysteroscope.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The statistical probability of one of those postmenopausal bleeding episodes being due to gynecologic cancer is extremely low.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Post-menopausal bleeding, Cancer, TVS</p> Mona Rani, B S Meena, Arshdeep Kaur, Leela Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2192 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 TO STUDY THE MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2171 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Acute pancreatitis is a protean disease capable of wide clinical variation ranging from mild discomfort to apocalyptic prostration</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was conducted in the department of surgery, RNT Medical College and Maharana Bhupal Govt. Hospital, Udaipur. A total of 35 cases of acute pancreatitis were studied</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of these 35 patients, 25(71.42%) had favourable outcome, while 4(15.4%) patient had complication (pancreatic pseudocyst in 3, and recurrence after 7 months in 1 patient), 3(8.57%) patient died and 3 (8.57%) patient could not be followed up due to non-compliance of patient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that history, clinical examination, radiological and blood investigations are helpful to come to a conclusive diagnosis and severity of acute pancreatitis and most of these cases can be managed conservatively and the use of Octreotide therapy helps in the favourable outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Conservative, Pancreatitis, Outcome</p> Ravindra Singh, Deepak Meena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2171 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE BUNDLE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING THE PERONEUS LONGUS TENDON AUTOGRAFT VERSUS HAMSTRING TENDON AUTOGRAFT https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2188 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be performed using autograft from various sources namely bone patellar tendon bone graft, hamstring graft, or peroneus longus tendon. Purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome and donor site morbidity of ACL reconstruction with peroneus longus tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft in patients with an isolated ACL injury.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Patients who undervent isolated single bundle ACL reconstruction were allocated in peroneus and hamstring groups and observed prospectively. Functional score (IKDC, &amp; Modified Cincinnati score) was recorded preoperatively and 1 year post-operatively. Graft diameter was measured intra-operatively. Donor site morbidity were assessed with thigh circumference measurments and ankle scoring by MRC grading and FADI Score.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>56 patients (28-Hamstring and 28-peroneus group) met the inclusion criteria. The average Peroneus longus graft diameter (8.8±0.8) was significantly larger than the Hamstring graft diameter (8.1±0.9). In terms of 1-year postoperative outcomes statistically there is very little comparable difference between both these grafts when used for arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study brings forth the superior efficacy and quality of double stranded peroneus longus tendon autograft in term of good functional score (IKDC, &amp; Modified Cincinnati score), larger graft diameter, less thigh hypotrophy, and excellent ankle function based on FADI Score. Prospective cohort study, level II.</p> <p><strong>Abbreviations:</strong></p> <p>ACL- Anterior cruciate ligament</p> <p>BPTB- Bone-patellar tendon-bone</p> <p>IKDC – International knee documentation committee</p> <p>FADI- Foot and ankle disability index.</p> Pankaj Jain, Rajesh Kumar Kushwaha, Ahteshyam Khan, Prashant Modi, Hari Saini Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2188 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY OF ROPIVACAINE ALONE AND ROPIVACAINE WITH DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN ULTRASOUND GUIDED FASCIA ILIACA COMPARTMENT BLOCK FOR ANALGESIA IN POSITIONING OF THE PATIENT IN SUBARACHNOID BLOCK PERFORMED IN UNILATERAL FEMUR FRACTURE SURGERY https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2167 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Patients encountered with fracture shaft and neck femur require some anaesthesia or pain relief to allow radiological, orthopedic and other procedures to be performed. Regional anaesthesia is the most widely used an aesthetic technique for orthopedic procedures in lower limbs.Fascia iliaca blocks provide a safe, cheap and effective form of pain relief for patients with neck of femur fractures. Animal studies have proven the combination of dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine to be safe and neuro-protective. Fascia iliaca compartment block which involve femoral nerve, lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh and obturator nerve. This study is designed to compare Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block under ultrasound guidance with ropivacaine and ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine positioning during spinal anesthesia in femur fractures.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>This study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi hospital and Mathuradas Mathur hospital, Jodhpur during January 2019–January 2020. 60 Patients admitted in Orthopaedic ward age group 21-60 yrs. of both sex were the source of data. Patients undergoing elective surgery for fracture femur (neck of femur and intertrochanteric) under SAB were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>We divided the cases into 2 groups of 30 each, as</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>GROUP R</strong>: Patients were received 30 ml 0.50% Inj. ropivacaine + 2 ml Normal saline with a total volume of 32 ml in unilateral FICB.</li> <li><strong>GROUP RD</strong>: Patients were received 30 ml 0.50% Inj. Ropivacaine + 2 ml Inj. Dexmeditomidine (0.5mcg/Kg) with a total volume of 32 ml in unilateral FICB.</li> </ul> <p>Standard protocol followed to administering regional anaesthesia. All data were collected and analysed with the help of suitable statistical parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our study results in that Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block with combination of ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine is more efficacious than ropivacaine alone for positioning during spinal anaesthesia in surgery for fracture femur.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Spinal Anaesthesia, Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block, Ropivacaine, Dexmedetomidine.</p> Vikas Rajpurohit, Manish Singh Chauhan, Vijay Singh Rawat, Shailesh Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2167 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 STUDY OF FINGERPRINT PATTERN IN RELATION TO GENDER AND BLOOD GROUP IN JHALAWAR REGION https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2186 <p>Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. Finger prints are the impressions made by fine ridges present on finger tips which are highly individualistic. The fingerprint ridges develop between 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> months of intra uterine life and remain unchanged in an individual throughout life. Out of many blood grouping systems available, ABO and Rh systems are the most important and are considered for the present study. Due to the immense potential of fingerprints as an effective method of identification an attempt has been made in the present work to analyse their correlation with gender and blood group of an individual. This study is carried out on 100 subjects (50 male and 50 female) having different ABO blood groups and belonging to different age groups. All the 10 fingerprints are taken and divided into loops, whorls, arches and composite. The results show that majority of the subjects belonged to blood group O. The fingerprint pattern of loops is most commonly found followed by whorls, arches and composite. Loops are higher in males whereas whorls and arches are found more in females. Composites are being in same proportion in both sexes. Highest frequency of loops is seen in O positive blood group followed by B positive. Among loops ulnar loops are predominant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fingerprints, Loops, Whorls, Arches, Blood Group, Pattern, Gender.</p> Ramrekh Dhaker, Ramakant Varma, Vabhav Bhatnagar, Mukesh Kumar Meena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2186 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 BUPRENORPHINE VERSUS MAGNESIUM SULPHATE: ADJUVANTS TO INTRATHECAL HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2152 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> An adjuvant to a local anaesthetic can potentiate spinal anesthesia and provide better postoperative analgesia. Our study has been drafted to evaluate and compare the analgesic potency of the adjuvants, buprenorphine and magnesium, to intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> One hundred and fifty patients by inclusion criteria posted for an elective lower abdominal surgery were randomised into three groups of 50 each. They received 3ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with either 1ml of 0.9% Saline or 1ml of buprenorphine (60?g) or 1ml of magnesium sulphate (50mg). Time for first rescue analgesia, onset of sensory and motor blocks, time to two-segment regression and duration of motor block, haemodynamic parameters, and side effects were studied. Data was analyzed with ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis H, Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests. Our Study was carried out from January 2020 to April 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The time for first analgesic request was 248.70&gt; 186.84&gt; 141.44 minutes</p> <p>(Buprenorphine&gt; magnesium&gt; control), p&lt;0.001. The onset of sensory and motor blocks was faster in buprenorphine group compared to magnesium and control groups. The time to two-segment regression and duration of motor block was significantly prolonged in buprenorphine and magnesium groups compared to control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The time to first analgesic request was longer with buprenorphine compared to magnesium sulphate with adequate sedation and negligible complications. Hence, addition of adjuvant buprenorphine (60?g) has a better demonstrable role in postoperative analgesia compared to adjuvant magnesium (50mg) or 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine alone.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Spinal Anaesthesia; Intrathecal buprenorphine; Intrathecal magnesium; Analgesic efficacy; Intrathecal adjuvants</p> Usha Bafna, Abirami Ponnusamy Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2152 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400