International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;"></span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJMBS JOURNAL PUBLISHER en-US International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2589-868X TO DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY (OSTEOPENIA AND OSTEOPOROSIS) IN INDIAN PATIENTS WITH CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER AWAITING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AS PER CURRENTLY USED HOLOGIC DXA DATABASE <h2>Background: Abnormalities in the bone metabolism observed in chronic liver disease are referred to as hepatic osteodystrophy. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are each part of this condition. Both conditions have a significant impact on morbidity, causing fractures that may result in chronic pain, long-lasting immobility, and deformity. Prevalence of fracture in patients with liver transplantation ranges from 15% - 65%. A high rate of fracturing is seen within the initial 1–2 years after transplantation.</h2> <h2>Aim: To determine the prevalence of low bone mineral density (osteopenia and osteoporosis) in Indian patients with cirrhosis of liver awaiting liver transplantation as per currently used Hologic DXA database</h2> <h2>Methods: This was a prospective observational study done at the department of gastroenterology and hepatology, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai from April 2011 to March 2013. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria underwent detailed history taking, physical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. One hundred patients were selected for the scope of the study.</h2> <h2>Results: Sixty-eight per cent of patients were in the age group of 45 to 65 years. The mean age ± SD of the study subjects was 51.2 ± 9.7 years. The mean age for male patients was 50.5 ± 10.1 years, and for females was 54 ± 7.3 years. Cirrhosis was due to alcohol in 36% of the patients, viral hepatitis in 28% (HBV in 10% and HCV in 18%) patients. 42% were in Child’s class B, and the remaining 58% were in Child’s class C. MELD score was less than 20 in 62% patients. One third was diabetic; one third gave the history of backache. History of smoking was present in one fifth (20%) patients, and a history of fracture (most of them were traumatic) was present in 13% of patients. By using Hologic DXA database at the lumbar spine, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 44% and 38 % patients respectively.</h2> <p>At the femoral neck, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 45% and 9% of patients. By using ICMR database at the lumbar spine, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 38% and 17% patients respectively. Similarly, at the femoral neck, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 34% and 5%. By using the Hologic DXA database, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 42% and 40 % patients. By using ICMR database, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 43% and 19% patients respectively.</p> <h2>Conclusion: In light of the above results, the present study revealed a high prevalence of low bone mineral density (osteopenia and osteoporosis) in Indian patients with cirrhosis of liver awaiting liver transplantation. The lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site in hepatic osteodystrophy.</h2> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Low Bone Mineral Density, Liver Cirrhosis</em></p> Sharad Deshmukh Suchita Deshmukh Sarojni A Parameswran P Pirmanayagam N Murgan Sangita Patil Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1872 ASSESSMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PATIENTS <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study was design to assess the level of altered lipid profile, lipoprotein sub fractions, oxidative stress and antioxidants in coronary artery disease with type-2 diabetes mellitus’s patients and non diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This case–control study included 300 subjects; out of which, 100 subjects were with normal blood glucose level and with normal ECG (Normal, N), 100 subjects&nbsp; were with normal blood glucose level and AMI (non-diabetic and AMI, N-AMI) and 100 subjects were with diabetes and AMI (Diabetic and AMI, D-AMI)</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>D-AMI individuals had high level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison to N-AMI individuals. The cardiac markers such as Troponin I, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly increased in patients suffering from myocardial infarction with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to patients of myocardial infarction without DM. The antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were lower in D-AMI patients than in N-AMI. However, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) were higher in D-AMI than in N-AMI controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study suggested that patients with D-AMI have elevated cardiac markers and reduced antioxidants levels as compared to N-AMI patient.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diabetes Mellitus, Acute Myocardial Infarction, Creatine Phosphokinase, Glutathione</p> Darshna Jain Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1868 ANALYSIS OF ABILITY OF PENETRATING ABDOMINAL TRAUMA INDEX (PATI) TO CORRECTLY PROGNOSTICATE THE PENETRATING ABDOMINAL TRAUMA PATIENTS <p><strong>Background:</strong> To evaluate PATI by means of ROC curve analysis and establish its sensitivity and specificity for predicting the morbidity and mortality in penetrating abdominal trauma.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a prospective study over an 12-month period, patients with penetrating abdominal trauma who underwent laparotomy were enrolled. Initial assessment of the patients was done following the ATLS guidelines. Patients were stratified on the basis of those who developed complications, no complications and postoperative mortality. PATI was calculated based on operative findings and the outcomes were measured on the basis of complications or mortality in the postoperative period.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Logistic regression analyses allow evaluations on how an instrument’s performance can be graded with respect to the relative predictive power of a study variable on the effect of a specific characteristic outcome. ROC curve analysis evaluates an instrument’s performance in a comprehensive manner; as results are summarized in a simple way, this methodology avoids data loss and simplification.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this study it was observed that with increasing PATI score, rate of complications increased.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, ROC curve, Death</p> Irfan Hussain Khan Nitish Soni Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1866 DETERMINING BASELINE BLOOD PRESSSURE IN PATIENTS FOR ELECTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES AT VARIOUS PRE-ANESTHETIC VISITS <p><strong>Background:</strong> Blood pressure (BP) is volatile in nature and also it affects post-operative outcomes therefore, regular perioperative BP monitoring is essential. Intraoperative variability of BP is permitted in range and proportion to baseline BP according to various guidelines. Pre-operatively BP is measured many times and it is highly variable. In this study we attempt to predict which pre-operative BP can be used as reference during intraoperative monitoring.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This observational study was conducted at hamidia hospital, Bhopal. 260 normotensive patients undergoing elective surgery who got clearance during PAC were enrolled. BP was measured by gold standard mercury sphygmomanometer in PAC clinic (PAC<sub>1</sub>), review PAC one day prior to surgery (PAC<sub>2</sub>), morning BP in preoperative room (POR) and inside OT room (IOR) before surgery.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In 260 enrolled patients males were slightly predominant 52.31%. Mean age was 34.68±11.63 years. Mean of Systolic BP (SBP) during PAC<sub>1</sub>, PAC<sub>2</sub>, Morning BP in POR and IOR prior surgery were 122.85±8.24, 118.18±8.08, 123.06±8.24 and 135.73±10.24 respectively and was significant (P&lt;0.001). Mean of heart rate (HR/minute) during PAC<sub>1</sub>, PAC<sub>2</sub>, Morning BP in POR and IOR prior surgery were 79.77±7.22, 78.90±7.44, 80.40±7.49 and 89.15±7.60 respectively and was significant (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Aaaaaa Due to stress of surgery SBP and HR were significantly higher in IOR just prior surgery. Also, BP of PAC<sub>2</sub> at ward was lowest though not significantly lower than BP in PAC<sub>1</sub> or POR. Thus, BP of PAC<sub>2</sub> can be used as an ideal reference BP but larger study is required for further generalization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Mean Blood Pressure</p> Poonam Kundnani Jogesh Kumar Vishandasani Jyotsana Kabre Tripti Vatsalya Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1862 A CROSS SECTION STUDY ON IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS <p>Background: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people</p> <p>Methods: This was cross-sectional study. All the adolescent girls who were given consent to hemoglobin estimation were included in the study.</p> <p>Results: The prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls was found as73.6%. Out of 736 anemic girls, 536 girls were suffering from mild degree of anemia and 173 girls were having moderate degree of anemia. Only 27 girl was found severely anemic.</p> <p>Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls is alarmingly high in India.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Prevalence, Anemia, Adolescent.</p> Medha Mani Saxena Ruchi Saxena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1860 THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY CLINICAL EXPOSURE MODULE IN UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION <p>Introduction: In traditional medical curriculum basic science subjects were taught in isolation from clinical subjects. Students would thereby find it difficult to retain concepts in basic sciences, recall and co-relate it when clinical setting was encountered. Early clinical exposure is early authentic patient contact in clinical or social setting which helps to enhance the understanding of health or illness/disease and the role of medical professional. The objective of this study was to study the influence of early clinical exposure for a module on jaundice on undergraduate students and faculty perception.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: ECE module on jaundice was introduced for study in first MBBS students. Pre-validated questionnaire was used for data collection and student and faculty perception about the module was evaluated.</p> <p>Results: Participating students got better score in post-test (6. 03 <u>+</u> 1.701) as compared with pre-test (5.82<u>+</u>1.701) although the results were not statistically significant. 92% students and faculty positively rated and appraised ECE as a teaching learning tool.</p> <p>Conclusion: ECE module on jaundice generated interest in students and could help students co-relate basic science concepts with cases. This could lead to improvement in academic performance and better patient care.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Early clinical exposure; student, faculty perception</p> Mukta P Bidikar Vikram Londhey Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1858 LDH LEVEL IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING AND ITS RELATION WITH SEVERITY AND MORTALITY: A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE <p><strong>Background:</strong> Organophosphorus compounds have been widely used for a few decades in agriculture for crop protection and pest control. In India Organophosphorus poisoning is the most common. The objective of our study was to measure the&nbsp; LDH Level in acute organophosphorus poisoning</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted among minimum 100 patients acute organophosphorus poisoning admitted in Casualty ward, MICU and attending medical ward of JLN hospital, Ajmer during Aug 2018 to July 2020. Serum lactate dehydrogenase estimation by spectrophotometric analysis using Beckman Coalter AU 680</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> These were significantly higher among deaths on day 1 and 3(810±372.99 and 1027.09±458.26, respectively) in comparison to survivors on day 1 and 3 (538.18±300.42 and 365.19±175.49, respectively). Significant difference was found between mean values of different levels of severity of LDH on day 1 and 3.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, this study found that Serum LDH can be used as biomarker in diagnosis or stratifying severity of acute OP poisoning, as it is cheap and easily available, especially in developing countries. Serial measurements of serum LDH levels in acute OP poisoning can predict the prognosis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> LDH, OP poisoning, Severity</p> Suresh Kumar Nagar Maniram Kumhar V. B. Singh Mayank Srivastav Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-05 2021-04-05 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1854 THE STUDY OF A, B, O (H) ISOANTIGENS IN PARAFFIN SECTIONS OF MALIGNENT TUMORS <p>The present study entitled, Study of A,B,O (H0 Isoantigens in paraffin sections of malignant tumors was conducted among the patients at Amaltas Institute of Medical Sciences, Dewas. Patients coming to any clinical department with tumors during the period ware randomly selected for the study . After complete history and thorough clinical examination, surgery of tumors was done and tissues were sent for histopathology examination.</p> Shyam Sunder Bajaj Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1845 PREVALENCE OF GALL BLADDER SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN NORTH WEST RAJASTHAN: A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AT OUR INSTITUTE. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the biliary tract. The majority of cases are adenocarcinoma (AC). Pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of gallbladder accounts only 3% of the malignant neoplasm of this organ.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The medical records of all the patients who underwent cholecystectomy and specimen sent to the Pathology Department of Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, in last five years were retrospectively analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of total 1375 patients, 40 patients had gall bladder tumors and 1 (2.5%) patient had histological evidence of squamous cell carcinoma of gall bladder. The patient was 43 year old female. cholecystectomy was performed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare tumour of gall bladder.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Squamous cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Gall Bladder</p> Tanu Bano Neelu Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1869 COMPARISON BETWEEN SERUM CREATININE AND SERUM CYSTATIN C LEVEL IN DIAGNOSING EARLY DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study was done to evaluate clinical usefulness of cystatin C levels of serum and urine in predicting renal impairment in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the association between albuminuria and serum/urine cystatin C. Cockroft-Gault equation was previously used for GFR calculation. The most recently advocated formula for calculating the GFR are The modification of diet in renal disease study group ,CKD-EPI equation(2009),CKD-EPI cystatin C(2012), CKD-EPI creatinine –cystatin C(2012). The cystatin C levels of serum and urine could be useful markers for renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>; This finding has major implications for clinical research and early intervention to prevent development of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Cystatin C, Diabetic Nephropathies, Albuminuria</p> Janmeshwar Prasad Manish Kumar Singh Md. Rashid Anwer Shyama . Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1867 TO ASSESS THE IDEAL TIME OF LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY AFTER ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY IN CASES OF CHOLELITHIASIS WITH CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS <p>Background: Aims of this study was assess the ideal time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in cases of cholelithiasis with Choledocholthiasis</p> <p>Methods: The present study was carried out on 150 patients admitted in Department of General surgery National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur, diagnosed with cholelithiasis along with choledocholithiasis &nbsp;from 1stJanuary 2019 to 30thJune, 2020.</p> <p>Results: In group 1 out of 75 patients 7 patients developed complications in post operative period compared to 35 patients out of 75 patients developed complications in group 2. The The mean hospital stay (in day) in group 1 patients was 2.26, median 2 and the mean of group 2 was 5.26, median 5.</p> <p>Conclusion: To conclude in our study there has been found significant advantage of early laparoscopic cholecystecomy following ERCP over the late group to minimize complications and promote early recovery of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ERCP, Cholecystectomy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography</p> Dhirendra Godara Vineet Choudhary Nitish Soni Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1865 COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF IV INJECTION OF KETOPROFEN AND PARACETAMOL IN THE TREATMENT OF TENSION-TYPE HEADACHE <p><strong>Background: </strong>Headaches are one of the commonly reported issues throughout the world population. Globally, Tension-type headache is a more common problem. Individuals facing long occurring and more severe headaches may go for care from the medical facility. However, most of the individuals do not do so which usually consequences in inappropriate and inadequate management of this problem.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of ketoprofen IV injection and paracetamol IV injection in the treatment of tension-type headache.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A validated questionnaire was designed to conduct this study. Certain inclusion and exclusion criteria were established to select the participants. Patients having the age between 20 to 40 years were treated with paracetamol and ketoprofen and their responses were recorded and evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our results suggest that paracetamol has more vital signs stability when compared with ketoprofen and is safer in terms of drug-induced allergic reaction and injection site reaction. However, ketoprofen has a faster onset of action when compared with paracetamol.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Management of tension-type headache is neglected most of the time which affects the quality of life and productivity in the affected population. Development and update of existing guidelines for tension-type headache are essential in managing this issue. Both ketoprofen and paracetamol are effective in treating this issue but both have some side effects. Future studies are still desired to further evaluate their effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Tension-type headache, Headache, analgesics, Ketoprofen, Paracetamol</em></p> Issa Abuzuaiter Hossen M. Tenawe Hafeez Arshad Yousef Tenawe Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1861 A STUDY OF ATTITUDE, AWARENESS AND PRACTICE ON FEMALE FETICIDE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BIKANER OF RAJASTHAN <p>Background: Female feticide has been a big social problem in all the states of India. There is a male child preference by pregnant women including their family members. Thus this study aimed to assess attitude and awareness on female feticide.</p> <p>Methods: The present study was conducted in ANC center of Medical college Hospital, Bikaner of Rajasthan in 500 pregnant women (250 rural and 250 Urban) .</p> <p>Results: Out of 500 pregnant women 62% had shown no gender preference, 23% preferred male child and 15% had preferred to have female child. Regarding awareness, 88% and 90% women knew that prenatal sex determination and female feticide are illegal respectively.</p> <p>Conclusions: Being the civilized citizens, it is our duty to raise voice against the declining sex ratio and killing of girl child. Being a woman it is our primary duty as well as concern to come forward to stop this menace.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Female feticide, Attitude, Awareness, Practice, Pregnant women</p> Medha Mani Saxena Ruchi Saxena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1859 A STUDY TO ACCESS THE CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL TYPING OF ANEMIA USING RDW WITH RBC INDICES AND PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anemia as a disease entity was well known to ancient Greek and Indian physicians. Anemia affects an estimated 2.36 billion individuals globally, especially women and children. Clinically useful approach classifies anemia according to alterations in red cell morphology. Once anemia is established, a morphological typing of anemia helps the clinician to approach the cause of anemia. Morphological typing of anemia is based on RBC indices – MCV, MCH and PCV.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study is a two years prospective study conducted between Jan 2019 to Dec 2020 at the Department of Pathology, Sardar Patel Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Bikaner. All the patients with the clinical suspicion of anemia who attended PBM and associated group of hospitals during study period, were included and investigated. The RBC indices and RDW was done using a 5 part automated hematology analyser and PBF was prepared, stained with leishmann’s stain and reported for morphological typing of Anemia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We received a total of 542 cases with clinical features of anemia during the study period. Microcytic hypochromic anemia was the most common type of anemia and females were affected more than males. Overall 83.21% of the cases showed concordant typing of anemia with RBC indices alone and 16.79% cases showed discordant typing, which need to be typed correctly with peripheral blood smear examination. In 91 cases of non concordant typing of anemia, most of the cases were typed as Normocytic normochromic anemia with raised RDW with RBC indices alone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In our study the findings can be summarized in one line – Peripheral blood smear examination even today cannot be totally replaced by automated hematology analysers as they provide so much additional information which cannot be summarized completely by the mere numerical calculations of an automated analyser</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anemia, RBC Indices, RDW, Peripheral Blood Smear</p> Lalit Aseri Vanita Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1857 ROLE OF USG FINDINGS AS A PREDICTIVE MARKER IN THREATENED ABORTION <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Centers for disease control and prevention, and the World Health Organization all define abortion as pregnancy termination before 20 week gestation or with fetus born weighing &lt;500g<sup> [1]</sup>.&nbsp; Early pregnancy USG parameters: - fetal crown-rump length (CRL), the presence/absence of sub-chorionic hematoma and Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) are good predictors of outcome.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, S.P. Medical College Bikaner&amp; associated Group of Hospital, Bikaner, Rajasthan. This is a hospital based prospective comparative study. The study group comprise of pregnant females attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology OPD. A total of 200 pregnant women are examined in this study. We divided these patients into 2 groups i.e group A and group B. Group A consists of 100 pregnant females with threatened abortion and group B with 100 normal pregnant female.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>FHR at 115bpm is 76.32% sensitive, 90.32% specific in predicting abortion with 82.86%&nbsp; positive predictive value and&nbsp; 86.15% negative predictive value.&nbsp; While CRL at 11 mm is 50% sensitive, 69.35% specific in predicting abortion with 55% positive predictive value and 69.35% negative predictive value.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>FHR is best predictive marker followed by presence or absence of sub-chorionic hematoma and CRL&nbsp; in threatened abortion which results in loss of pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pregnancy, Abortion, Threatened, USG</p> Kamlesh Yadav Pragya Ojha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-05 2021-04-05 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1853 GLOBAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV INFECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW <p>Human Deficiency Virus (HIV) targets and alter the human immune system and often leads to a stage of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). However, the World Health Organisation believed with advanced medical technology HIV/AIDS can be managed and infected patient’s life expectancy can be increased. As of 2019, around 68% of adults and 53% of children with HIV worldwide were receiving lifelong treatment. In this article, we explore the epidemiology of HIV from 2009 to 2019.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Human Deficiency Virus; Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); Epidemiology; Tuberculosis; Antiretroviral therapy</p> Debidatta Singhsamanta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1846 CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF LASERS IN DENTISTRY - A REVIEW <p>Lasers can be effectively used in dentistry due to their ability to cut, incise and ablate hard and soft tissues. Other inherent properties of laser light, such as selective absorption, coagulation, sterilization and stimulatory effects on vital structures offer some advantages over traditional techniques, making lasers the treatment of choice in dentistry. This article is about the clinical application of lasers in different branches of dentistry.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: lasers, incision, post operative, dentistry</p> S. Sai Divya S. Srikanth Raju E. Rajendra Reddy P. Gowtham Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1838 THE STUDY OF PREDICTION OF BODY MASS INDEX THROUGH GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER GENE (SLC6A4) 5-HTTLPR IN RAKMHSU STUDENTS <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>In recent years obesity has become a major health problem and life style changes, habits aggravated the prevalence of obesity in young children. Many studies have suggested that serotonin has been linked with the occurrence of obesity along with various other factors. Based on these facts we aimed to study the relation of serotonin allele’s expression with BMI of university students.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was a case control involving 66 participants done in Biochemistry department, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khamiah. A standardized diet history questionnaire used to calculate the calorie intake. The saliva was collected and using the manufactures guidelines the DNA has been extracted using DNA Genotek kit. The polymerase chain reaction used to detect the polymorphism in the subjects. Finally DNA gel electrophoresis done to detect the alleles in different subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study results showed that BMI, Waist circumference and body weight percentage was significant in overweight and obese subjects. The most common alleles in normal subjects was SS when compared with overweight and obese showing SL, LL.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion: </strong>Our study was in accordance with other studies which showed L allele associate with obesity. We suggest that, L allele associate is a risk and can be used to assess/predict the obesity.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Obesity, Polymorphism, Overweight, Body mass index, Polymerase chain reaction</p> Neveen Salaheldin Hemimi Shyam Sundar Ravichandran Mohammed Mustafa Ali Asuwin Anandaram B K Manjunatha Goud Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 5 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i4.1847