International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;"></span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJMBS JOURNAL PUBLISHER en-US International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2589-868X DISEASE BURDEN OF ELDERLY PATIENTS IN MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE OF CENTRAL INDIA. A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The elderly population is increasing rapidly globally, and presently, India has the second largest number of elderly persons. According to 2011 census geriatric people in India is about 8.2% of the total population, so it’s essential to know the disease pattern of these people for efficient management of health demands &amp; to plan better health care facilities for the elderly population in the society.</p> <p><strong>Aims of the study</strong><strong>:</strong> To study the disease burden of various medical disorders in the elderly patients in Bundelkhand region of Sagar district, which is a rural Government Medical College of central India serving mainly rural population of this region.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> This is a prospective, observational, cross sectional study. The study was conducted in the admitted patients as well as the patients attending Medicine OPD. The data were collected by history, detailed clinical examination &amp; review of old records as per proforma.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Total 250 patients were included in the study. out of which 132 (52.8%) patients were male &amp; 118 (47.2%) were females. Mean age of our patients for male patients were 69.73 ± 6.37 and for females 66.44 ± 6.59. Ratio of Male: Female in our study is 1.2:1 .In our study majority of cases are of respiratory system (n= 114,45.6%), Cardio vascular (n=86,34.6%), Visual system (Cataract) (n=92,36.8%), Musculo skeletal (78,31.2%), hearing loss (n=83,33.3%), Nutritional ( n=52, 20.8%) Neurological (n=49, 19.6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The study shows high incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, Diabetes mellitus and pulmonary tuberculosis in the study. Majority of the patients have more than one comorbidity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Elderly, COPD, CAD, Hypertension, DM, Pulmonary TB,</p> Jyoti Tiwari Ramesh Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1629 MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES AT PERSONAL AND POLICY LEVEL IN PANDEMIC CONDITIONS: THE NEEDED GUIDING PRINCIPLES <p>The complexity of science and policymaking in the background of uncertainty has been brought into shrill attention by the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently, the evidence base for effectiveness of interventions, either preventive or therapeutic, remains patchy and limited with respect to the Pandemic. In these conditions, we all may need to make decisions based on “balance of probabilities” rather than “evidence beyond reasonable doubt”, and consider how it fit together with existing interpretations, values, and priorities.</p> MD Abu Bashar C.P. Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1567 ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS <p><strong>T</strong>he study was done to find out the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>After ethical consideration, Observation based Cross–Sectional study was conducted at R D Gardi Medical College, Ujjain in 75 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. All the patients were subjected for routine investigations along with HbA1c and 2D echocardiography for evaluation of the left ventricular function.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among 75 study cases, forty one (54.7%) had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The cases with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction had a mean HbA1c of 8.48.There was significant correlation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with HbA1c (p value of 0.001), With rise in HbA1c level there was increased involvement of the myocardium with subsequent increase in severity of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study concludes that myocardial damage occurs before the appearance of clinical manifestations. Left ventricular diastolic function is affected earlier than the systolic function and is an early marker of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Early intervention and strict control of diabetes should be advised to all diabetes patients to prevent the early involvement of the myocardium.</p> Anand Sagar Neha Chaturvedi Unique Sagar Mustafa Malvi Vipin Porwal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1622 EVOLUTION IN BREAST IMAGING <p>Evolution in breast imaging has dramatically changed and upgraded&nbsp; by&nbsp; wide variety of technologic advances from the early days of direct-exposure film mammography to xeromammography to screen-film mammography to the current era of full-field digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis. In early 1950 Mammography has been introduced along with the breast self examination. After two decades thermography and ultrasound examination &nbsp;has been added in the breast imaging . From year 1990 to 2000 drastic technological advances, organized screening,&nbsp; with&nbsp; BI-RAD&nbsp; classification introduced by&nbsp; American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System have helped to shape the specialty of breast imaging. With the development of digital mammography and tomosynthesis in 2020, breast ultrasonography and breast magnetic resonance imaging, both complementary to mammography, &nbsp;has set new standard in diagnostic accuracy of breast&nbsp; lesions.This&nbsp; paper gives a quick insight&nbsp; to the development of&nbsp; &nbsp;breast imaging and reviews the evolution of breast imaging starting from a historical perspective and progressing to the present day.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Mammography screening, tomosynthesis ,Digital mammography.</p> Sushil J. Sikchi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1606 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Sutures Vs Cyanoacrylates for Minor Superficial Lacerated Wounds in Healthy Paediatric Age Groups <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to examine the advantages and disadvantages of using sutures vs cyanoacrylates (surgical glue) for minor superficial lacerated wounds in healthy paediatric age groups.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Participants of this research fall in the age group of 1 to 16 years. There was no chronic medical condition present in the patients. All the participants had had superficial regular clean forehead (including eyebrows) wounds less than 3 cm. All suturing procedures were performed under subcutaneous local anaesthesia. Proline suture 5-0 was used to suture the wound. Wound closure with surgical adhesive (cyanoacrylates) was completed without any anaesthesia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 48 patients were part of this study. Feedback by the patients illustrated that all patients who had the procedure of suturing felt the pain during the procedure while among the group treated with surgical glue, some patients reported the feeling of pain or a burning sensation. Infection signs were most evident in the suture-treated group. Wound healing and scar formation periods were slightly higher with suture application when compared with the usage of surgical glue on wounds. Overall, most of the patients were satisfied and comfortable with treatment by the application of surgical glue (cyanoacrylates).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity day by day, and currently, critical evaluation of these adhesives is imperative to evaluate their advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness in comparison with present materials and methods.</p> Asem Albawwab Radwan A Dalloul Farouq A. Abusamra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-07 2021-01-07 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1593 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF ACECLOFENAC AND DICLOFENAC ON HUMAN BY CLINICAL TRIAL <p>Various exogenous and endogenous stimuli incite a complex reaction in vascularized connective tissue called inflammation. Non sterodial antiinflammatory drugs are used to reduce inflammation Preferential COX-2 inhibitors namely diclofenac and aceclofenac was taken for my present work and anti inflammatory effect was compared with control and with each other. Student-t-test-was done to compare result. It was found that inflammation varied significantly across the three groups (P=000) compared to control, in~lammation was less in both diclofenac and aceclofenac (P=00). Reduction of inflammation with diclofenac was less, in comparision to aceclofenac at end. Aceclofenac is more efficacious than diclofenac.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aceclofenac, diclofenac, Anti inflammatory effect</p> Amit Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1652 TO EXPLORE AND COMPARE BIOENHANCING ACTIVITY OF PIPERINE USING DIFFERENT ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION (ORAL AND INTRAPERITONEAL) <p><strong>Background &amp; </strong><strong>Method: </strong>The present study was conducted at Dept. of Pharmacology, Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences &amp; Research Centre, Indore. Piperine and was used to isolate the pure alkaloid, piperine, the extract was dissolved in 5 ml of ethyl alcohol. To this solution, 10 ml of 10% w/v of alcoholic potassium hydroxide was added with constant stirring. It was then filtered and allowed to stand overnight. The yellow needle shaped crystals of piperine were separated the next day.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Pentazocine given in combination with piperine intraperitoneally showed significantly greater increase in reaction time as compared to pentazocine given in combination with piperine orally at 4 hr (p &lt; 0.05).Sertraline given in combination with piperine intraperitoneally showed slightly greater increase in immobility period (58%) as compared to sertraline given in combination with piperine orally (51%), although not significant (p &gt; 0.05). The oral combination of sertraline and piperine had significantly better activity than even the sertraline i.p. group (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Studies are recommended on such combinations which may prove to be very good complimentary regimens for the treatment of many disorders. Pharmacokinetic studies are also required to further explore the bioenhancing property and characterise exact extent and mechanisms of such interactions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Piperine, Pentazocine, Sertraline &amp; Albino Mice.</p> <p><strong>Study Designed:</strong> Observational Study.</p> Jitendra Gupta Apoorwa Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1620 RISK FACTORS FOR INNER CITY ASTHMA PATIENTS <p>Asthma patients in inner cities have the highest prevalence of asthma and the highest death rates in America. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sensitization and exposure to common indoor allergens seen for asthma treatment at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Eighty asthma patients were enrolled in the emergency department and 64 in hospital clinics in this study. Neither sensitization nor visibility In this population, cat allergens are prevalent. The findings show that black asthma patients are exposed to high levels of mite and cockroach allergens in downtown Atlanta and that a high percentage of patients with asthma are sensitized to these allergens; a significant risk factor for asthma in this population is the combination of sensitization and exposure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> asthma; mechanical ventilation, status asthmaticus , Pathophysiology epidemiology mechanisms.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1650 A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN GCF LEVEL IN PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS AFTER SCALING AND ROOT PLANING WITH AND WITHOUT DIODE LASER <p><strong>Background and Objectives:</strong> C?reactive protein (CRP) is a type I acute phase reactant. A number of studies have reported elevated gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) CRP levels in periodontitis subjects, which decrease following periodontal therapy. Effect of diode laser as an adjuct to Scaling &amp; Root planing is also well stablished. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment SRP with diode laser, on CRP levels in GCF in patients with chronic periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 40 subjects with moderate periodontitis based on community periodontal index scores, were included in the study.</p> <p>Periodontal therapy was performed dividing each side of jaw as a group (Split mouth); one side SRP alone &amp; another Diode laser with SRP. GCF was collected from each subject at</p> <p>Baseline (prior to treatment) and 1 month after periodontal therapy. The collected sample was subjected to biochemical analysis to detect CRP levels by using a commercially available highly sensitive kit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The present study demonstrated that the mean CRP values at baseline were found to be 0.11043mg/l in side-I (side treated with SRP alone); 0.11042mg/l in side-II (side treated with SRP &amp; laser) of the patient, which reduced to 0.4148 mg/L in side I and 0.3985mg/L in side II after treatment, which are highly significant according to statistical analysis but the changes between two sides were non- significant statistically.</p> <p>Interpretation and Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that periodontal therapy is able to reduce the GCF C reactive protein level significantly, but there was no statistically significant result in CRP level, between sides treated with SRP &amp; SRP with laser.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Chronic periodontitis, C?reactive protein, gingival crevicular fluid, Scaling and root planing, Diode laser</p> Sangeeta Roy C.S. Joshi Pradeep Shukla Gaurav Malhotra Prerna Kataria Varun Dahiya Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1618 RENAL FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH IN-HOSPITAL MORTALITY <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Stroke is one of the world's leading causes of death, and it causes significant impairment that has a profound effect on the long-term survival of patients. Not only neurological defects, but also medical co-morbidities decide the adverse effects after cerebrovascular stroke (CVS). In different studies, related kidney dysfunction has been shown to be a significant predictor. However, considering the elevated burden of stroke patients in India, there is a shortage of such studies in India. The current research was therefore conducted to assess renal function in acute stroke patients and to investigate the possible utility of preventive and early intervention interventions to minimize morbidity and mortality due to renal dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a 1-year, longitudinal, retrospective analysis of 25 adult acute stroke patients who were admitted to the hospital. On the day of admission, and then on days 3, 7 and 14, patients underwent routine laboratory investigations, including baseline biochemical investigations. The approximate glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) was determined and the renal function pattern was evaluated in the two stroke subgroups. Creatinine was known as the baseline for entry. During hospitalization, AKI was characterized as a 0.3 mg/dl creatinine increase or a percentage increase of at least 50 percent from baseline.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 25 stroke patients, 15 (59%) were ischemic while the remainder were hemorrhagic (41 percent ). The mean age of the subjects examined was 60.42 ± 8.45 years. In contrast to hemorrhagic stroke, the mean age of subjects with ischaemic stroke was higher (62.65 ± 7.32 years) (58.72 ± 9.86 years). Baseline Serum creatinine and blood urea were significantly higher in patients with hemorrhagic stroke relative to subjects with ischaemic stroke (p &lt; 0.01), although e-GFR was significantly lower in patients with hemorrhagic stroke (56.12 ± 28.34 ml/min/1.73 m2) compared to patients with ischaemic stroke (86.34 ± 26.68 ml/min/1.73 m2).</p> <p>The hospital stay period (days) was substantially higher in patients with hemorrhagic stroke (12.43 ± 5.36 days) relative to subjects with ischemic stroke (9.54 ± 2.65 days). In 24 per cent of stroke patients, acute kidney damage has been seen. In hemorrhagic stroke patients (34 percent), AKI was more common compared to ischemic stroke patients (17 percent ). In contrast to non-AKII, diabetes was substantially correlated with the production of AKI (54 percent) (16 percent ). In stroke patients, the mortality rate was 12% . Statistically, there were no variations between the ischemic stroke mortality rate (12%) and hemorrhagic stroke (12 percent ). The mortality rate was 29% among patients who developed AKI . The predictors of AKI were found to be hemorrhagic stroke, older age, diabetes mellitus and high baseline creatinine levels. It has been found that GCS score &lt; 10, AKI, hemorrhagic stroke and AKI requiring renal replacement therapy are associated with longer hospital stays. In patients with aspiration pneumonia, GCS score &lt; 10, AKI, older age and AKI needing Renal Replacement Therapy, mortality was significantly more likely.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In our research, the predictors of AKI were found to be hemorrhagic stroke, older age, high baseline creatinine and diabetes mellitus. It was also found that AKI was an autonomous indicator of extended hospital stay and increased mortality among stroke patients.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Cerebrovascular stroke (CVS), acute kidney injury (AKI), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS).</p> Akshat Agarwal Atul Kumar Agarwal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1648 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DESENSITIZING DENTIFRICE AND DENTAL LASER ON DENTINAL TUBULE OCCLUSION- AN INVTRO –SEM STUDY <h3>Background: the present study aims to evaluate whether fluoro calcium phospho silicate (Biomin or Elzenes) or in combination with Diode laser has better dentinal tubule occlusion and can be suggested as a effective treatment modality for patients with dentinal hypersensitivity. The objectives of the study were -to evaluate effectiveness of Fluoro calcium phospho silicate on dentinal tubules occlusion, to evaluate effectiveness of Fluoro calcium phospho silicate and laser and to compare its effect with Fluoro calcium phosphosilicate alone and laser on dentinal tubule occlusion, and to evaluate the effectiveness of laser on dentinal tubule occlusion. In study setting, SEM analysis was done at Sophisticated test and instrumentation centre, Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), Kerala. 120 Dentine specimens were obtained from sound premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose from the patients of age group 13 to 40 years. All the teeth were stored in 0. 2% thymol at room temperature. In our study, Fluoro calcium phospho silicate (Biomin) showed an average results of 70.37% completely occluded tubules and 23.48% of partially occluded tubules compared to 2.68% and 28.43% in the control group. Conclusion: In our invitro study the treated groups the specimens brushed with combination group (Biomin and Laser) showed the highest percentage of tubule occlusion followed by Biomin alone and then Laser. Hence from the results, it can be stated that combination of Biomin and laser can be considered as the best effective method in office treatment modality for dentinal hypersensitivity because of its ability to occlude more tubules..</h3> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Diode laser, Biomin or Elzenes</p> Shaheen C Preadeep Shukla Gaurav Malhotra Prerna Kataria Mona Dagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1616 ASSOCIATION OF CELIAC DISEASES WITH SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION CHILDREN, AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE: - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Celiac disease (CD) may be an underlying cause of malnutrition.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The objective of this study was to find out the seroprevalence of CD in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in age group of 1–5 years.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective, observational, hospital-based study carried out at Malnutrition Treatment Centre attached with the ananta institute of medical science &amp; research center Rajsamand, Rajasthan, from February 2019 to January 2020. A total of 220 children with SAM were enrolled and screened for CD on the basis of celiac serology (tissue transglutaminase [tTg]-immunoglobulin A/G [IgA/IgG]).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Celiac serology was positivity in 60 (27.28%) cases; out of total 60 seropositive cases, 28 (46.66%) cases were seropositive for both tTg-IgA and IgG, while only tTg-IgA and only tTg-IgG were positive in 18 (30%) and 14 (23.33%) cases, respectively. Mean serotiter of serum tTg-IgA and IgG in seropositive cases was 134.01±198.74 and 49.05±25.74 unit/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>High seroprevalence of CD in SAM should be taken as alert as CD may be an underlying cause and responsible for malnutrition. These children should be screened by celiac serology (tTg-IgA/IgG) to rule out CD.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong><em>Celiac disease, Seroprevalence, Severe acute malnutrition</em></p> Sameer Jagrwal Pooja Sharma Kapil Shrimali Prasun Bhattacharjee Manish Singhal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-13 2021-01-13 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1642 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF DIODE LASER, GLUMA DESENSITIZER AND DESENSITIZING MOUTH RINSE IN THE TREATMENT OF DENTINE HYPERSENSITIVITY – CLINICAL STUDY <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, lasers. Gluma Desensitizer, Desensitizing mouthrinse has been used previously in a dentifrice or gel to alleviate dentinal hypersensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To compare the efficacy of Diode laser, Gluma desensitizer and desensitizing mouth rinse in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The study contained 60 individuals (42 males and 18 females) of dentinal hypersensitivity. There were three groups in the study i.e., patients treated with laser, Gluma Desensitizer and Desensitizing mouth rinse. Before starting any treatment, the hypersensitivity was checked with the help of cold air blast and probe test according to VAS (Visual analog scale) the responses were evaluated from the patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Group I (Laser) showing the highly significant results compared to group 2 (Gluma desensitizer) and group 3 desensitizing mouth rinse (3% Potassium Nitrate) in decreasing the dentinal hypersensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> dentine hypersensitivity, desensitizing agent, diode laser, laser therapy. Gluma Desensitizer; mouth rinses</p> Sai Chandra Goud Prerna Kataria Pradeep Shukla Gaurav Malhotra Varun Dahiya Mona Dagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1614 A MENKES DISEASE CASE WITH MULTIPLE COMORBIDITIES <p>We report our case of a 15 months old male child, a product of nonconsanguineous marriage presented with increased seizure frequency more than 4 times a day with fever and upper respiratory tract infection for 1 month. He diagnosed with Menkes disease and his oldest brother died at age of 5 year due to the same disease. Menkes disease is a rare congenital disorder of copper metabolism with severe multisystemic manifestations that are primarily characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue anomalies. He had almost the typical clinical finding but also, he had other complications which are non commonly found in such cases. As the Menkes disease is incurable disease, early diagnosis and parental counseling is very important for the mother in order to prevent getting a child with same disease.</p> Salha Alhjohani Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1638 EVALUATION OF SERUM INTERLEUKIN-10 LEVELS AS A BIOMARKER OF GLYCEMIC ALTERATION IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: BIO-CHEMICAL STUDY <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Chronic periodontal disease (CPD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share common pathogenic pathways. This study was aimed to estimate levels the of serum interleukin (IL?10), an anti?inflammatory cytokine also associated with T2DM and evaluate its association with hyperglycemia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This investigation involved seventy five participants (55 males, 20 females, 30-55 age group) divided into three groups comprising 25 participants each: Group 1 (healthy controls), Group 2 (CPD patients) and Group 3 (T2DM patients with CPD) . Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, random blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and serum IL?10 was measured.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Interleukin?10 was detected in all three groups. Statistically significant (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) differences were observed in most of the variables in all groups. IL?10 correlated significantly with PPD in Group 1 and with HbA1c in Group 3. IL?10 levels were lowest in Group 2.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Low IL?10 levels associated with high HbA1c. Pathogenic mechanisms of CPD seem to regulate IL?10. Serum IL?10 levels may be one of the predictors of hyperglycemia.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Chronic periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, glycosylated, hemoglobin A, interleukin?10, type 2 diabetes mellitus</p> Aditi Yadav Pradeep Shukla Varun Dahiya Gaurav Malhotra Prerna Kataria Mona Dagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1612 A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON ASSOCIATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & STRESS LEVELS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS OF TELANGANA STATE <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was done to assess if there is any association between Emotional intelligence (EI) &amp; stress among medical students.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>In this cross-sectional observational study, information was gathered through a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. It consisted of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 Questionnaire) &amp; Schutte self-report EI test (SSEIT) to collect the information about stress levels and emotional intelligence respectively. Statistical test Chi-square was used and p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant. SPSS Version 23 was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> A total of 60 participants were assessed for Stress and EI. 11 (18.33%) students were found to be under severe stress. Majority (n=39, 65 %) of the students had high EI. Gender, type of stay (hostellers/day scholars) and stress levels were not found to be statistically significant with EI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Non -significant association between stress levels and EI was found hence other factors leading to stress in medical students should be investigated and studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Emotional intelligence, Medical students, Stress.</p> Namrata R Vaishampayan Indrajeet P Shah Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1663 PATIENT AND PHYSICIAN RELATED FACTORS OF ADHERENCE TO EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDELINES IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic disorders, such as; diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases are the most common reason of disabilities and increased the rates of morbidities and mortalities among population worldwide. The current review aims to explore the patients and physicians related factors of adherence to evidence-based guidelines in T2DM and cardiovascular diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Scientific articles that linked to the present topic were obtained using an online searching process. The searching process included different scientific websites such as Google Scholar and PubMed. We obtained 18 articles that matched with the current subject and written in English. Of those 18 articles, 6 were excluded as they published before 2000, or mayn’t focusing on the present topic or written in a language other than English; therefore, only 12 papers were included, and they were published till 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria that we selected, and then the discussion of the subject was performed under the main titles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Chronic diseases are considered the most dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide (coronary artery disease, diabetes, and ischemic stroke). Most patients didn’t know why they didn’t know adequate information about the guidelines, or they felt embarrassing when receive drug recommendation. Lack of awareness, knowledge and communications are the most barriers for physicians’ non or poor adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Physicians should educate patients about adherence to the guidelines of diabetic and cardiovascular diseases. More health education programs should be implemented to increase the knowledge of patients and physicians about the risk of T2DM and CVD and adherence to the guidelines to could manage, control, and prevent these diseases.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cardiovascular risk factors, Chronic diseases, Diabetic mellitus T2 risk factors, Evidence-based guidelines, Health literacy.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1636 ACUTE ASTHMA, PROGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT <p><strong>Background: </strong>Asthma is a major health problem affecting all ages that increase the mortality rate worldwide. Early detection of its signs and symptoms are essential to control and maintain the disease and effective treatments are administrated, such as; ?-agonists and corticosteroids. The current review is about acute asthma, prognosis, and treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Scientific articles that linked to the present topic were obtained using an online searching process. The searching process included different scientific websites such as Google Scholar and PubMed. We obtained 16 articles that matched with the current subject and written in English. Of those 16 articles, 4 were excluded as they published before 2000, or mayn’t focusing on the present topic, or written in a language other than English; therefore, only 12 papers were included, and they were published till 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria that we selected, and then the discussion of the subject was performed under the main titles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Asthma is one of the most chronic inflammatory disease that increased the mortality rate worldwide. Asthma could affect 300 million individuals and account for one death among 250 death cases. All patients admitted with asthma exacerbation should be assessed promptly through detecting and recognition worsening signs and symptoms. The initial treatment includes oxygen administration, Short-acting ?-agonist, and systematic corticosteroids. Decreasing the severity of asthma exacerbations by improving daily therapy for asthma, controlling environmental triggers, and increasing patient education toward asthma risks and how they recognize its symptoms and seek for health care help.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Asthma exacerbations, ?-agonist, corticosteroids, differential diagnosis, fatal and non-fatal asthma.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1610 KNOWLEDGE AND PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS AMONG ADULT SAUDI POPULATION <p>While the reported annual incidence of venous thrombo-embolism varies widely, ranging from 43.7 to 145 per 100 000, the true incidence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) remains unknown. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a term that refers to blood clots inside a deep vein in the body, most commonly in lower extremities (usually calf or thigh); in rare cases, it can be in upper extremities. The main aim of this study was to assess the public knowledge and extent of DVT and to assess the influence of socio-demographic factors. The objectives were:</p> <ul> <li><strong>To test the association between gender and the prevalence of DVT.</strong></li> <li><strong> To test the association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of DVT.</strong></li> <li><strong> To test whether recent or current pregnancy and DVT are significantly associated.</strong></li> <li><strong> To test the significance of a family history of DVT and the prevalence of DVT among members of the same family.</strong></li> <li><strong> To fit binary logistic models that flag the important factors for DVT</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>The study was cross-sectional and it involved the adult population in Saudi Arabia. The total enumeration method was used to include male and female that agreed to answer the questionnaire in this study. The questionnaire included demographic information and knowledge and attitudes towards the symptoms, and risk factors measures.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The ages of 317 of the 484 respondents who agreed to fill out the questionnaire were between 19 and 30 years. Males were 35.8% and females 64.2%, while 21.8% of the respondents reported having an incidence of DVT. DVT was statistically significantly associated with gender and pregnancy condition p&lt;.05 in both cases while the highest risk factor was gender where females were 2.205 more times likely to have DVT than males [95%CI;1.85,2.63, p &lt; .000].</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>There is a general increase in knowledge for DVT and also a general increase in incidences of DVT in Saudi Arabia compared to previous literature. BMI, gender, and pregnancy condition are the main risk factors of DVT.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Deep vein thrombosis, risk factors, Surgery, Saudi Arabia</p> Abdulla Hassan Aljaroof Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1661 DIAGNOSTIC PERFORMANCE OF ZIEHL-NEELSEN & CBNAAT TECHNIQUES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS, A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN JHALAWAR, RAJASTHAN. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death among infectious diseases worldwide. The advent of the CBNAAT was a revolution in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, especially with high incidence and resource poor regions. It can be used close to the point of care by operators with minimal technical expertise, enabling diagnosis of TB and rifampicin</p> <p>Resistance (RIF) concurrently using unprocessed clinical specimens, in less than 2h.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the diagnostic performances of Ziehl-Neelsen &amp; CBNAAT techniques in detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>We retrospectively reviewed the 2414 sputum samples of suspected pulmonary TB. Sputum samples were subjected for ZN staining and CBNAAT.RIF resistance was detected by CBNAAT.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 2414 samples, 751 sputum samples were positive by smear microscopy. 1127 Samples were confirmed positive by CBNAAT examination. Majority of cases, 43.57% were in 21-40 yrs age group.24.40% were females and 75.59% were males. Sensitivity of CBNAAT was 100% for sputum positive cases and sensitivity was 22.6% for sputum negative cases. Overall RIF resistance was detected in 49 (4.4%) cases in present study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> CBNAAT provide sensitive detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance directly from untreated sputum in less than 2 hours with minimal hands-on time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification tests (CBNAAT), Rifampicin(RIF)</p> Shilpi Hora Neeraj Raman Mukesh Kumar Needa Saneef Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1633 SERIAL CRP EVALUATION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF NEONATAL SEPSIS: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY. <p>Aim: to evaluate the role of serial CRP evaluation in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Darbhanga Medical College and Hospital, Bihar for the period of 1 year.&nbsp; A total of 97 neonates suspected of sepsis having birth-weight &gt;1,500 g constituted the study population. CRP was measured from the serum by quantitative turbidimetric immunoassay. The CRP 1 level was measured at the time of clinical presentation; CRP 2 and CRP 3 were measured at 24 and 48 hours respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study out of total 97 subjects, there were 59 (60.8%) males and 38 (39.2%) females. CRP was found positive in 60 cases. In the present study, lethargy (100%), decreased activity (100%), poor feeding (94.7%), poor cry (94.7%), tachypnea (89.5%), hypotonia (47.4%), hypothermia (31.6%), convulsion (26.5%), prolonged CFT (21.1%) and fever (10.5%) were the various symptoms observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serial CRP measurements are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. CRP 3 level may virtually rule out or rule in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, and has very good correlation with blood culture.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>CRP, Sepsis, Neonates</p> Ved Prakash Gupta Rizwan Haider Binit Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1656 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important form of hospital acquired pneumonia, specifically refers to pneumonia developing in mechanically ventilated patients for more than 48 hours after tracheal intubation or tracheostomy. The aim of the study to find out organisms associated with VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A prospective study in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) for &gt;48 h. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) were collected from patients with suspected VAP cases and quantitative cultures were performed on all samples. All data were analyzed by Epi-info software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Quantitative culture results showed significant growth (&gt;10<sup>5</sup> cfu/ml) of pathogenic organisms causing VAP in 88 (88%) patients, while 12(12%) patients showed insignificant growth (&lt;10<sup>5</sup> cfu/ml) considered as non VAP. Acinetobacter spp. was found to be the commonest organism 36 (35.29%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae 24 (23.53%) and 21 (20.59%) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Acinetobacter spp., P. aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. were the most common agents responsible for VAP and showed multidrug resistance. The knowledge of prevalent local pathogens and their antibiogram will help the clinician to choose the appropriate antimicrobial agent for effective and rationale treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ventilator-associated pneumonia, Intensive care unit, Gram Negative bacilli</p> Anubhav Dabas Madhu Ankit Dabas Nidhi Dabas Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1630 TO DETERMINE RELATION OF SYMPTOM DURATION IN OUTCOME OF CTS <p><strong>Background &amp; </strong><strong>Method: </strong>The study was conducted at the neurology Department of Amaltas Institute of Medical Sciences, Dewas, M.P. In our laboratory, the hands are evaluated for CTS using standard techniques with Nicolet Viking IV (ver12). The skin temperature of the body part, under evaluation, is measured using a probe connected to the machine and is maintained at 310c using a commercial hot air blower.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The number of symptomatic hands was more in females (73 vs. 27%) and persons with high BMI (61.5 vs. 38.5); 27.7% of the hands belonged to the persons having concomitant medical issues. Female gender showed slightly higher odds (OR 1.2, CI 0.5-2.6, two-tailed p= 0.5) for remission on medical therapy. The median duration of symptoms of our study population was12 months (mean 24.16 ± 28.93 months). We had 40 patients having CTS in bilateral hands (n= 80 hands), while 50 patients had unilateral hand symptoms (n= 50 hands). Forty-one (31.5%) hands were symptomatic for 10 months or less (median 6 months) while remaining 89 hands were symptomatic for longer than 10 months (median 24 months). Shorter duration of the symptoms, at presentation, had significant higher odds of spontaneous remission (OR 9.47 CI 3.8-23.1, two-tailed p= &lt;0.0001).<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, it seems reasonable to treat subjects of CTS, conservatively for first ten months after symptom onset, more so when they have four or more out of the seven favorable factors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Symptom, CTS, MMA &amp; SDL.</p> Amit Maheshwari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1653 TO IDENTIFY THE RELATIONSHIP OF MARITAL SATISFACTION WITH MIGRAINE-RELATED DISABILITY AND MIGRAINE-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE <p><strong>Background &amp; </strong><strong>Method: </strong>This observational study was conducted Amaltas Institute of Medical Sciences, Dewas, M.P. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. Female patients presenting to the outpatient department of Neurology with headaches were screened for migraine by one of the investigators.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Marital satisfaction was inversely related with migraine-related disability, thereby meaning, higher marital satisfaction was associated with lesser migraine-related disability (p&lt;0.001). This was consistent with the results reported previously that migraines caused significant disability and impacted the division of household work, the ability to attend social and leisure functions, and the likelihood of partner arguments, thus, negatively impacting relationship with spouse/partner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that MSSM may serve as a reference in future research and clinical practice. It may be used as an objective tool to assess marital satisfaction and also to determine the longitudinal, dynamic, and probable causal relationship of marital satisfaction and its various domains with migraine-related disability and quality of life. Also, future studies may be done on larger cohorts of other cultures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Female Migraineurs, Marital Satisfaction, Migraine, disability &amp; quality of life.</p> Amit Maheshwari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1651 EFFICACY OF NOVEL ROOT CANAL IRRTIGANT-MTAD AGAINST ROOT BIOMODIFIERS ON PERIODONTALLY INVOVLED TEETH IN PERIODONTAL REGENRATION- AN IN VITRO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY. <p>B<strong>ackground: </strong>Smear layer removal and collagen fiber exposure may improve regeneration which can be accomplished by use of root biomodifiers. These enhance the degree of connective tissue attachment to denuded roots. The objective of this <em>in vitro </em>study was to evaluate and compare novel root canal irrigant and other root biomodifiers for smear layer removal on periodontally involved human teeth.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Forty human teeth were collected and stored in saline. After scaling and root planing, two samples were obtained from each tooth. A total of 100 dentin blocks were randomly divided into four groups: Mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), tetracycline hydrochloride (TTC HCl), citric acid (CA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The agents were applied for 3 min by active burnishing. Immediately following treatment, the specimens were rinsed, dehydrated, fixed and prepared for scanning electron microscope and were examined at × 3500 magnification. Sampaio’s index was evaluated by the previously trained blind examiner using photomicrographs. &nbsp;Groups &nbsp;were &nbsp;compared &nbsp;using &nbsp;analysis &nbsp;of &nbsp;variance &nbsp;followed &nbsp;by &nbsp;Tukey’s &nbsp;<em>post</em>?<em>hoc &nbsp;</em>test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent is most efficacious in removing the smear layer and showed statistically significant dentinal tubules opening, followed by EDTA, TTC HCl, and CA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent and conventional root biomodifiers used in the study alters the dentin surface by smear layer removal and exposure of dentinal tubules. Hence, MTAD as a root biomodifier may have a significant role in periodontal regeneration<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Citric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, MTAD, root biomodifier, scanning electron microscope study, tetracycline hydrochloride</p> Dasarapu Srujan Gaurav Malhotra Pradeep Shukla Prerna Kataria Mona Dagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1619 AN INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE THE CLINICO-HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH DENGUE FEVER <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To determine the clinical and hematological profile in patients with Dengue fever.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Netaji Subhas Medical College and Hospital, Bihta, Patna, Bihar, India and Dubey Nursing Clinic Friends Colony Patna, Bihar for 1 year. Total 120 patients with complaints of fever and clinical features of dengue with positive NS1 antigen test or dengue antibody serology IgM or IgG or both were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Most of the cases (47.5%) were seen in the 20-30 year age group followed by 40-50 years 20.83%, 30-40 years 15%. Majority of the patients were males 78 (65%) compared to females, 42 (35%) and the male to female ratio was1.8:1. Fever was the most common presentation and was seen in 106 cases (88.33%) cases. 54 (45%) cases showed Hb of 9-12 gm %, followed by 38(31.67%)&nbsp;&nbsp; cases showed Hb of 12-15 gm %, 9(7.5%) had Hb of below 9 gm % and 19 (15.83 % ) had Hb of above 15 gm% .63(52.5 %) cases showed hematocrit of 25-35% and 35 (29.17 %) showed hematocrit of 35-45%. 21 (17.5 %) cases , count of 4000- 11000 cells/cu mm seen in&nbsp; 81(67.5%)&nbsp; cases,&nbsp; &gt;11000/&nbsp; cumm was&nbsp; seen&nbsp;&nbsp; in 18 cases (15%) and &lt;4000 in 17.5%. Out of 120 cases of dengue fever, 87.5% cases had thrombocytopenia and 12.5% cases had severe thrombocytopenia (&lt;20,000/cumm) with bleeding manifestation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Hemoconcentration, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and raised liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT along with reactive/ plasmacytoid lymphocytes on peripheral smear gives enough clues to test for dengue serology so that dengue cases can be diagnosed in their initial stages.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>hematology, profile, Hb, thrombocytopenia</p> Madan Dubey Manish Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1649 SHORT TERM PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM FERRITIN ON ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, coronary artery disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Elevated serum ferritin has been suggested to be associated with coronary artery disease especially myocardial infarction but the evidence remains tenuous, especially with regard to prognosis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 50 patients of STEMI and 50 patients of NSTEMI were included in the study.A control group of 50 healthy persons was taken for comparision. Baseline characteristics, LV ejection fraction, Killip functional class and outcomes were compared across tertiles of serum ferritin.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a significant correlation between serum ferritin and LV ejection fraction (p=0.01),Killip class(p=0.03) and mortality(p=0.03).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Raised serum ferritin is associated with worse outcome following myocardial infarction.</p> Subhasish Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1617 STUDY OF AWARENESS ABOUT ANAESTHESIA AND ANAESTHESIOLOGIST AMONGST GENERAL PUBLIC <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anaesthesiology is an upcoming multimodality specialty in medical science with its spectrum ranging from perioperative patient care to pain management, critical care and palliative care. Anaesthesiologists are playing a decisive role in patient management.&nbsp; Anaesthesia and anaesthesiologist from the very beginning has obtained “Behind the Screen” role. The general public still do not adequately recognize their role as anaesthetist, perioperative physician, intensivist and pain physician.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> 1. To assess the knowledge about anaesthesia and anaesthesiologists among general public</p> <ol start="2"> <li>To evaluate the knowledge and importance of anaesthesia during surgery.</li> <li>To know the problems and find solutions regarding unawareness about anaesthesia and anesthesiologists.</li> </ol> <p>Material and Methods: A survey was conducted amongst 1000 participants coming to tertiary care hospital by providing a questionnaire with 12 questions. It was also distributed in vernacular language for those who did not understand English language.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 63.4% were aware and 36.6% participants were not aware about what anaesthesia is and what anaesthetists do. 70.0% and 58.7% of participants were aware about anaesthesia &amp; anaesthesiologist belonging to group I (&lt;30 yrs) and group II (&gt;30 yrs) respectively. 66.5% males and 61.1% of females were aware whereas 40% of illiterate were not aware and 66.4% literate were aware about the role of anaesthesia &amp; anaesthesiologist.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study portrays the ignorance among the general population regarding the important role played by anaesthesiologists. This may be because we anaesthesiologists do not spend enough time with patients in the peri-operative period and educate them about our role and our speciality and the less use of electronic media by us.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> anaesthesia and anaesthesiologist</p> Jayshree Sali Sunita Sankalecha Vikram Sonawane Neha Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1644 OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETICS AT THE PROVINCIAL REFERENCE CENTER FOR DIABETES <h3>Introduction: Diabetes is defined as a disorder in the assimilation, use and storage of sugars provided by food, its management is ensured by monitoring overweight and obesity and regular glycemic control.&nbsp;</h3> <h3>Methods: The study took place over a period of one year from January to December 2015.The evaluation of overweight and obesity was carried out by calculating the Body Mass Index, weight and height were measured according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), Glycemic control was performed by blood analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose.&nbsp;</h3> <h3>Results: The age range of patients is between 8 months and 80 years, with a dominance of diabetics from urban areas (74%) compared to those from rural areas (26%).&nbsp;Overweight affects all of this population.&nbsp;The average BMI of women tends towards obesity (IMC?30): (29.21 Kg / m&nbsp;2&nbsp;± 3.1) for gestational diabetes and (29.15 Kg / m&nbsp;2± 3.2) for type 2 diabetes. The glycemic control values are above the norms. The difference between the values of glycosylated hemoglobin between men (8.5 7% ± 2.6) and women (8.1% ± 2.3) is not significant (P&gt; 0.05)</h3> <h3>Conclusion:All diabetics have BMI and glycemic control values above the norms.&nbsp;In-depth research is needed on these diabetics in order to establish an urgent program of remediation.</h3> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Diabetes, prevalence, BMI, overweight, Glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1615 ROLE OF GLUTEN FREE DIET IN CELIAC DISEASE WITH CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diagnosis of celiac disease in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition without duodenal biopsy or HLA typing is a dilemma. The objective of this study was to study the response to gluten free diet in sero-positive Celiac Disease children suffering from severe acute malnutrition in age group 1-5 years. <strong>Methods: </strong>This prospective, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at MTC of tertiary care medical college hospital of southern Rajasthan from Feb. 2019 to Jan. 2020. Total 220 children with SAM were enrolled and screened for celiac disease on the basis of tissue tTg-IgA/IgG serology. Seropositive cases were kept on gluten free diet for short period of time and observed for the resolution of symptoms and improvement in growth, monitored by anthropometry on discharge and follow up visit. <strong>Results: </strong>Mean weight gain (gm/kg/day) on follow up was 3.87±3.49 in seropositive and 1.88±3.79 in seronegative cases (P-value&lt;0.05). Mean weight gain was 6.43±3.28gm/kg/day in only tTg-IgA positive and 3.04±2.95 gm/kg/day in only tTg-IgG positive cases (P-value-&lt;0.05). The mean weight gain in strictly gluten free adherent sero-positive cases was 4.89±2.97 gm/kg/day while in gluten free non-adherent patients it was -0.49±1.70 (P-value &lt;0.001). Mean weight gain in probable (tTg-Ig-A &lt;10 times ULN) and presumptive (tTg-IgA &gt;10 times ULN) Celiac disease were 3.44±3.73 and 5.44±3.78, respectively without statically significant difference (P-value &gt;0.05).<strong>Conclusions: </strong>In situations where facility of duodenal biopsy and or HLA DQ2/DQ8 typing is not available, resolution of symptoms and improvement in growth on gluten free diet confirms the diagnosis of celiac disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Celiac disease, Gluten free diet, Tissue trans-glutaminase, Severe acute malnutrition.</p> Sameer Jagrwal Vivek Kumar Sharma Gourav Goyal Prasun Bhattacharjee Manish Singhal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1640 PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY AS AN ADJUNCT TO SCALING AND ROOT PLANING IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS: A SPLIT MOUTH CLINICO MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY <p>Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the use of low power lasers with appropriate wavelength to kill cells or microorganisms previously treated with a photosensitizer drug.<sup>1</sup> The aim of the present study was to &nbsp;assess the efficacy of photodynamic (PDT) as an adjunct to non –surgical periodontal therapy (SRP) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.<strong> Materials &amp;Method</strong>: A split mouth design was used in A total of 20 patients (as per the criteria laid down for selection), 3quadrents were selected in each patient and divided in to three groups. Group A:&nbsp; Received Photodynamic Therapy by means of 0.5% indocyanine green and irradiated by Laser after scaling and root planing<strong>.</strong> Group B:&nbsp; Received scaling and root planing. Group C: Received laser therapy. The clinical readings and the microbial analysis were done at base line, 1 month and 3 months from the 1st visit. The pre and post-operative values of all parameters were subjected to statistical analysis.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> PDT+SRP group showed additional improvement than the SRP groups in all parameters were as the results were low in LASER alone group.</p> Battu Pragna Varun Dahiya Pradeep Shukla Gaurav Malhotra Prerna Kataria Mona Dagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1613 PATIENT AND PHYSICIAN RELATED FACTORS OF ADHERENCE TO EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDELINES IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND PREVENTION <p>Patients do not always receive guideline-adherent therapy, yet little is known about the underlying causes on the patients’ side. This study quantified non-guideline-adherent treatment of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation) in primary care and analyzed the causes from the physician’s as well as the patient’s view.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong>&nbsp; Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1637 QUALITY OF LIFE RELATED TO HEALTH AND OBESITY IN A PRIMARY CARE CENTER <p><strong>Background</strong>:&nbsp;To evaluate the association between obesity and two aspects of health-related quality of life: self-perception of health and psychological well-being in patients enrolled in a health center.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>.&nbsp;Descriptive cross-sectional study on 167 patients between 20 and 70 years old, with a body mass index ³ 30. A clinical interview was carried out to obtain the socio-demographic and clinical variables of each patient and the administration of 2 questionnaires: 1) Nottingham Health Profile (PSN) and 2) Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp;Mean PSN scores indicated a moderate overall deterioration in perceived health in obese patients, the affected areas being "pain", "physical mobility" and "emotional reactions".&nbsp;The variables associated with a poorer score were female sex, age over 50 years, low educational level and the presence of psychiatric pathology or osteoarthritis.&nbsp;The mean total score on the PGWB indicates a small deterioration in psychological well-being.&nbsp;Female gender, anxiety, and a low educational level were also associated with worse scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>:&nbsp;In our population, a profile of obese patients with poor quality of life is identified (women over 50 years of age with a low level of education and the presence of psychiatric pathology or osteoarthritis) on whom the advisability of taking priority action is raised.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Obesity.&nbsp;Quality of life.&nbsp;Health survey.&nbsp;Chronic diseases Perceived health.&nbsp;Psychological well-being.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1611 MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN <p><strong>Background:</strong> Acute abdominal pain (AAP) is one of the most common causes of referral to an emergency department (ED), but information about its impact is limited.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objectives of this article are to define the prevalence of AAP among ED visits in a large university hospital and analyze its main clinical features.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>All patients admitted at the Sant’ Orsola, Malpighi University Hospital of Bologna ED on 12?a priori selected sample days in 2013 were included. General data were recorded for each patient. A total of 192 clinical variables were recorded for each patient with abdominal pain.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During the observation period the ED assisted 2623 patients with a daily admission rate of 219?±?20 (mean?±?SD). Of these, 239 patients complained of AAP as their chief complaint at entry (prevalence?=?9.1%). AAP prevalence was significantly higher in females than in males (10.4% vs. 7.8%; OR?=?1.37;&nbsp;<em>p</em>?=?0.021) as well as in foreign over Italian patients (13.2% vs. 8.5%; OR?=?1.64;&nbsp;<em>p</em>?=?0.007). The most frequent ED operative diagnoses were non-specific abdominal pain (<em>n</em>?=?86, 36.0%) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract-related pain (<em>n</em>?=?79, 33.1%;&nbsp;<em>n</em>?=?19 upper GI,&nbsp;<em>n</em>?=?60 lower GI).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> AAP is a common cause of referral at EDs. Despite technological advances, non-specific abdominal pain is still the main operative diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Acute, Abdominal, Pain, Management</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1662 ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF DEMENTIA ON THE LIFE OF CAREGIVERS AND EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp;</strong>Memory impairment associated with age (DEMAE) is a relatively benign disorder, which can be quite common due to the fact that it is linked to normal aging and the evident increase in life expectancy in the world and national, with a larger population of elderly people and the consequent increase in chronic diseases, typical of this population segment.<br><strong>Objective:&nbsp;</strong>To evaluate the result of an educational intervention in patients with mild dementia and its impact on the quality of life of the caregiver.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;An educational intervention was carried out on patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia in the Madruga municipality from September 2015 to February 2016. The universe was made up of 110 elderly people.&nbsp;The sample consisted of 16 patients who were assigned to the study group together with the 16 caregivers and 16 to the control group by random assignment.&nbsp;Variables such as cognitive impairment, associated symptoms, and quality of life were controlled.&nbsp;The information was collected from interviews, caregiver surveys and the&nbsp;Minimental Test&nbsp;that were applied to the patients before and after the intervention.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The negativism, fear, distractibility and communication of patients improved.&nbsp;A slowing of cognitive decline was found in the study group and progressed in the control group.&nbsp;The caregiver's quality of life improved.<br><strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;Behavioral symptoms improved, the evolution of the disease was delayed in the study group and progressed in the control group.&nbsp;The caregiver's quality of life improved.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Dementia;&nbsp;quality of life;&nbsp;educative intervention.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-10 2021-01-10 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1634 TO STUDY THE PREVALENCE OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY IN PRETERM INFANTS: AN HOSPITAL BASED OBSERVATIONAL STUDY. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Premature infants have avascular or incompletely vascularized retina at birth and ROP evolves over 4-5 weeks after birth. The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants, with birth weight ? 1500 grams and/or gestational age ?32 weeks in a tertiary care center.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> The study was conducted in a tertia<strong>ry </strong>care center of Bihar region India The sample size is 145 babies. All preterm infants admitted with a birth weight of ?1500 grams and/or ? 32 weeks of gestation and baby those at risk of ROP.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 145 babies have enrolled during the study period of which 124 babies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and completed this prospective study.15 babies could not complete the follow-up protocol and 6 babies died before full vascularization of the retina. 124 babies who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were screened and 33 babies were found to have ROP. The prevalence of ROP in this study is 26.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Among the preventable causes of blindness in children, ROP figures very high on the agenda. Low birth weight and gestational age were found to be the most important risk factors for the development of ROP.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Low birth weight, Prematurity in preterm infant, Retinopathy, Oxygen therapy</p> Binit Singh Rizwan Haider Ved Prakash Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1658 PREVALENCE OF DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION AMONG ASYMPTOMATIC NORMOTENSIVE DIABETICS <p>LV diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest signs of myocardial involvement in diabetes and hence, an important component in diabetic cardiomyopathy. It is also an important predictor of heart failure and long term mortality. Diabetics have a 2.5 fold inceased risk of heart failure. It is suggested that early detection of diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography can lead to institution of early measures for prevention of heart failure. The aim of this study is to find the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic diabetic patients by echocardiography.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diastolic dysfunction, diabetes mellitus</p> Subhasish Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1631 DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE <p>Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as a common physiologic phenomenon encountered intermittently by a large population, especially following a feed. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) happens if the number of gastric juices that refluxes into the esophagus passes the accepted limit, making symptoms with or without correlated esophageal mucosal injury (i.e., esophagitis). Diagnosis and treatment guidelines of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were announced in 1995 and updated in 2005 and lastly reviewed in 2013 by the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). These and other guidelines undergo periodic review. Advances continue to be made in GERD, leading us to review and revise previous guideline statements. Here we aimed to review the different updated guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A web-based search utilizing the advanced characteristics of different databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane electronic databases was carried out.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Updates, Guidelines, Diagnosis, and Treatment.</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1654 SUPPRESSION OF GLYCATION ACTIVITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES MELLITUS- A NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT <p>Nutrition/Diet remains a key player in Diabetes Mellitus prevention and management, and rightly so, healthy eating proves to be a essential factor in prevention of complications. Cereals that are edible to eat by Indian people and showing antioxidant and antiglycation activity which can be helpful in decreasing glucose levels. Different sources of methods are used to check the activity of free radicals, their oxidative stress, antiglycation property and phenolic content. Phenolic content excellently shown by the oat meal and pigmented rice bran as well as antioxidant capacity by barley, determined by 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS). About minerals zinc, copper, potassium, calcium are analyzed by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectrometry and these are present in most concentrated form in barley. Unsaturated lipids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) are 76% more in sorghum than in rye. Scavenging activity is weaker in ready to eat whole cereal where as in oat meal showed higher capacity to do scavenging activity. Barley have a lower fat content than sorghum and millet. Rye and Barley is a great source of soluble dietary fibre and higher levels of insoluble dietary fibre are present in barley and sorghum than millet and rye. Beta-glucan is the great source in barley; about 22% compositions of pentosan, lignin and resistance starch.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: ABTS, glucan, spectrometry, antiglycation, oxidative stress</p> Rohit Raina Ruchi Raina Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1595 A RARE CASE OF LEFT SIDED UNCOMPLICATED MORGAGNI HERNIA IN AN ADULT <p>Diaphragmatic hernias of Morgagni are anatomical defects in the anterior diaphragm that allow herniation of abdominal viscera into the thorax. They are the rarest of congenital diaphragmatic hernias and usually present in childhood with respiratory symptomatology. Adults are often asymptomatic or present with strangulation of visceral contents. We describe the case of a 60-year female presenting with chronic chest pain and diagnosed with a left sided Morgagni hernia, with stomach and greater omentum as its contents. She underwent thoracotomy repair of the hernia and the defect was repaired using polypropylene mesh.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Morgagni Hernia, Adult, Thoracotomy, Mesh Repair</p> Raja Lahiri Santanu Dutta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 5 1 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i1.1590